CLINICAL CHEMISTRY LEC UNIT 1

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Laboratory Medicine

1 / 171

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

172 Terms

1

Laboratory Medicine

refers to the discipline involved in the selection, provision, and interpretation of diagnostic testing that uses primarily samples from patients

New cards
2

diabetes mellitus, clinical

Associated disease in carbohydrates

New cards
3

Kidney

Associated organ in NPN

New cards
4

metabollic syndrome

Associated disease in proteins

New cards
5

Selection of correct specimen to use Selection of method to use Selection of supplies to use

What are the three selections?

New cards
6

False (cannot)

True or False: Provide all services needed by the patient and there are instances wherein a laboratory can cater some services

New cards
7

True

True or False: a primary laboratory offers only limited services unlike a tertiary laboratory wherein services offered are mostly complete. However, there are cases when a tertiary laboratory cannot perform or do a certain test; thus, it performs send-out services.

New cards
8

False: Tertiary laboratory

Send out services occur when a primary laboratory that does not offer a test/service collects the specimen needed for testing and sends the collected specimen to another laboratory that offers thet certain service or is capable of doing the test.

New cards
9

False: not allowed

True or False: Medtechs are allowed to interpret the results

New cards
10

Confirming a clinical suspicion Excluding diagnosis Assisting in the selection, optimization, and monitoring of treatment Providing a prognosis Screening for disease in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms Establish and monitor the severity of a physiological disturbance

Importance of Laboratory Medicine

New cards
11

Organic chemistry General Chemistry Biochemistry

Clinical chemistry (physiology and anatomy)

New cards
12

Clinical chemistry

It is a linkage among Organic Chemistry, General Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physiology and Anatomy

New cards
13

Clinical chemistry

Laboratory section that performs qualitative and quantitative analyses of blood, urine, spinal fluid, feces, calculi and other materials.

New cards
14

Clinical Biochemistry and Chemical Pathology

Clinical chemistry is also known as:

New cards
15

Biochemical Marker:

any biochemical compound that is sufficiently altered in a disease to serve as an aid in diagnosing or predicting susceptibility to the disease

New cards
16

Analyte

substance we are looking for either qualitatively or quantitatively

New cards
17

Blood borne

carried or transmitted by blood

New cards
18

Pathogen

causative agent of a disease

New cards
19

Pathologic

Instead of pathogenic, we use________in clinical chemistry

New cards
20

Accuracy

ability to determine the true and known value of a substance

New cards
21

Precision

ability to reproduce the same results in repeated analysis of the sample

New cards
22

Accuracy

Which of the following does not belong to the group? -Precision -Accuracy -Reproducibility -Repeatability

New cards
23

Reliability

ability of an analytical procedure to maintain its original accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity over an extended period of timer

New cards
24

Analytical Specificity

measures one compound only

New cards
25

Analytical sensitivity

measures even small, minute amount of a compound

New cards
26

GOD-Pod Glucose: specific for glucose only

Example of analytical specificity

New cards
27
  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): hormone (biomarker) released during the 2nd or 3rd week of pregnancy.

  • Covid antigen test kit: not sensitive

Example of analytical sensitivity

New cards
28

Specimen

any material coming from the patient's human body submitted to the laboratory for processing and testing

New cards
29

Blood

Most common specimen used in the clinical laboratory

New cards
30

phlebotomy

The process of collecting blood is termed as

New cards
31

venipuncture, arterial puncture, or skin/capillary puncture

Collecting of blood may be done in three ways

New cards
32

Whole blood Serum Plasma Arterial blood Venous blood Capillary blood

Blood collections specimens:

New cards
33
  1. median cubital vein

  2. cephalic vein

  3. basilic vein

Blood Collection sites (antecubital fossa; in order from best to last resort):

New cards
34

antecubital fossa

Where is the best venipuncture site?

New cards
35
  1. Brachial vein

  2. Femoral vein

  3. Radial vein

  4. Ankle vein

  5. Veins of the dorsal hand

Other veins that can be used for venipuncture

New cards
36
  1. Brachial artery

  2. Femoral artery

  3. Radial artery

Arterial puncture sites:

New cards
37

ABG (Arterial blood gas)

pH

What tests are done using arterial blood?

New cards
38

Neonates

extremely obese patients

severe burn victims

thrombotic tendencies

When is a skin puncture performed?

New cards
39
  1. Arm on mastectomy

  2. edematous areas

  3. Hematomas

  4. arm in which blood is being transfused

  5. scarred area

  6. arms with fistula or vascular grafts

  7. Sites above an IV cannula

Inappropriate venipuncture sites:

New cards
40

False: thinner walls but lower pressure

True or False: Veins have thicker walls but higher pressure compared to arteries

New cards
41

True

True or False: Only doctors can execute arterial blood puncture

New cards
42

-Antecubital fossa -Basilic vein -Cephalic vein

Venipuncture sites:

New cards
43

Antecubital fossa (median)

first choice in venipuncture and anchored by 2 veins

New cards
44

Cephalic

has a tendency to roll

New cards
45

Basilic vein

it hurts more to collect blood from here (skin is thinner in this area) and there's an artery and a nerve under this vein so the risk of puncturing either one is greater

New cards
46

EDTA

It contains an anticoagulant

New cards
47

True

True or False: EDTA should be centrifuged immediately

New cards
48

Serum

This is the liquid portion of clotted blood

New cards
49

red top tube

it is the absence of anticoagulant

New cards
50

Plasma

This is the liquid portion of unclotted blood

New cards
51

False: 10 to 15 min

True or False: Red top tube Should allow the blood to clot for 15-20 minutes before putting the tube in the centrifuge

New cards
52

Qualitative Determination and Quantitative Determination

Two types of laboratory determination

New cards
53

Quantitative determination

exact amount of the compound present (high or low)

New cards
54

Qualitative determination

presence or absence of a certain compound

New cards
55

Label

a unit that defines the physical quantity or dimension

New cards
56

Diagnosis

the identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms. Keyword: detection

New cards
57

Prognosis

an opinion, based on medical experience, of the likely course of a medical condition. How long does it take for the patient to recover or to expire. It predicts what will happen to the patient based on their condition.

New cards
58

Abnormalities, Disease Diagnosis, and Treatment to correct the abnormalities

Clinical Chemistry measures biochemical compounds to detect abnormalities on the levels of such compounds.

New cards
59

Also known as Clinical pathology/Clinical laboratory

Laboratory medicine

New cards
60

Laboratory medicine is also known as... (2)

Clinical Pathology Clinical Laboratory

New cards
61

What are the two sections of the laboratory?

  • Anatomical Pathology

  • Clinical Laboratory

New cards
62

This laboratory of Pathology is isolated from thehospital.

Anatomical Pathology

New cards
63

It deals with tissue processing and autopsy

Anatomical Pathology

New cards
64

Plays a key role in the diagnosis of different diseases,particularly, the metabolic disturbances (e.g. diabetesmellitus) and some hormonal imbalances.

Clinical Laboratory

New cards
65

The Clinical Laboratory plays a key role in the diagnosis of different diseases,particularly, the ____________________ (e.g. diabetesmellitus) and some _______________________________.

metabolic disturbances; hormonal imbalances

New cards
66

Laboratories are important in confirming a ________________________ (patient's possible disease) from clinical signs and symptoms.

clinical suspicion

New cards
67

True or False: One importance of laboratory medicine is excluding diagnosis. Since some diseases have similar manifestations,running laboratory tests may help narrow down andexclude diagnosis.

True

New cards
68

Clinical laboratory assists in the _, _, and ___________________ of treatment.

selection, optimization, monitoring

New cards
69

This is helpful in providing a prognosis, screening for disease in the absence of clinical signs andsymptoms, and establishing and monitoring the severity of a physiologicaldisturbance.

Clinical Laboratory

New cards
70

What are the sections of the laboratory medicine abroad?

○ Clinical Chemistry ○ Molecular diagnostics ○ Toxicology and drug monitoring ○ Endocrine and organ function testing ○ Microbiology ■ Parasitology is under Microbiology ○ Hematology ■ Coagulation testing is under Hematology ○ Hemostasis and thrombosis ○ Blood banking/ transfusion medicine ○ Immunology ○ Identity testing ○ Cytology and anatomic pathology

New cards
71

True or False: In the Philippines, sections are already found in one laboratory and are not divided like abroad.

True

New cards
72

What are the sections of laboratory medicine in the Philippines?

○ Clinical chemistry ○ Molecular diagnostics ○ Drug testing ■ Can be under Clinical Chemistry ○ Microbiology ○ Hematology ○ Blood banking/ transfusion medicine ■ Can be under Clinical Chemistry ○ Serology and immunology ○ Clinical microscopy ○ Cytology and anatomic pathology

New cards
73

Linkage or incorporation among the knowledge of generalchemistry, organic chemistry (carbons, carbohydrates),biochemistry (chemical compounds and processes inorganisms), and physiology and anatomy.

Clinical Chemistry

New cards
74

Laboratory section that performs qualitative andquantitative analysis of blood urine, spinal fluid, feces,calculi and other materials.

Clinical Chemistry

New cards
75

A division concerned with the analysis of body fluids toyield timely, relevant, accurate and precise information onthe clinical status of the human body

Clinical Chemistry

New cards
76

True or False: Relevance is an important element in Clinical Chemistry testings. These body fluids should be yielded timely(routine, STAT, emergency rooms such as point ofcare). Results should also be released while the informationis still relevant to the patient

True

New cards
77

Branch of medical science that involves the analysis ofbiological materials, usually body fluids, to providediagnostic information on the state of the human body

Clinical Chemistry

New cards
78

What is the most important analyte of humans?

Blood

New cards
79

Detects the presence or absence of an analyte; Tests for general or physical characteristic

Qualitative

New cards
80

Quantifies the amount of an analyte in a specimen; Also known as clinical biochemistry and chemicalpathology

Quantitative

New cards
81

Quantitative is also known as... (2)

  • Clinical Biochemistry

  • Chemical Pathology

New cards
82

Clinical Chemistry Consists of studying the substancessuch as... (4)

○ Carbohydrates ○ Proteins ○ Lipids ○ Nucleic Acid

New cards
83

Any biochemical compound that issufficiently altered in a disease to serve as an aid indiagnosing or predicting susceptibility of the disease

Biochemical marker

New cards
84

Another substance we are looking for eitherqualitatively or quantitative

Analyte

New cards
85

Carried or transmitted by blood

Blood borne

New cards
86

HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Malaria, Autoimmunediseases are examples of...

Blood-borne diseases

New cards
87

Causative agent of a disease

Pathogen

New cards
88

Virus, Bacteria, and Fungi are...

pathogens

New cards
89

ability to determine the true and known valueof a substance

Accuracy

New cards
90

Close to the true value

Accuracy

New cards
91

True or False: Accuracy is independent of precision but not theother way around.

True

New cards
92

Ability to reproduce the same results inrepeated analysis of the sample

Precision

New cards
93

Closeness of the Value, not necessarily accurate

Precision

New cards
94

True or False: If the test is accurate, it is always precise. But if it is precise, itis not always accurate.

True

New cards
95

Ability of an analytical procedure to maintainits original accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivityover an extended period of time

Reliability

New cards
96

For the detection of the specific analyte, willonly measure a certain substance

Specificity

New cards
97

It will only measure the specific substance (e.g. beta*). Interfering substances will not affect the test

Specificity

New cards
98

Detect even a small amount of the substance accurately

Sensitivity

New cards
99

True or False: In the laboratory, we prefer a test procedure with both high precision, specificity and sensitivity.

True

New cards
100

Any material coming from the patient's human body submitted to the laboratory for processing and testing

Specimen

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 164 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11760 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(82)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 504 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(16)
note Note
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard184 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)