unit 3

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Chemistry is the ____________ of Biology

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1

Chemistry is the ____________ of Biology

Foundation

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2

Why do we study chemistry?

We study chemistry to understand the structure and function of the cells that make up living things

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3

What is the basic form of matter?

an element

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4

What is matter?

Anything that has mass and takes up space

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5

What is an element?

Simplest form of a substance - cannot be broken down into simpler substances

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6

Elements are assigned ___________

Symbols. Examples: Carbon (C), Oxygen (O2), Chlorine (Cl)

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7

What are the most prevalent elements?

H - Hydrogen

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8

Why do elements bond?

Increase STABILITY

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9

Where is energy stored?

Energy is STORED in the chemical bonds

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10

What are compounds?

Formed when 2 or more elements BOND together

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11

What is bonding?

the joining of two atoms in a stable arrangement (chemically combine)

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12

What are the two kinds of compounds?

Two types: Inorganic Vs. Organic

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13

What are inorganic compounds?

Contains either C or H or neither

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14

Where are inorganic compounds found?

Made by nature and can be found in living things

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15

Water is the best known ___________.

solvent

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16

What is the main use of water in terms of chemical reactions?

Water breaks up molecules allowing chemical reactions to occur.

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17

Is water important to every cell?

YES, it is an essential component of every cell.

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18

Carbon has ___ electrons in its outermost cell

4

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19

Carbon can make how many bonds?

4 bonds

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20

Carbon can form large ____ and ____

large chains/rings

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21

What do organic compounds contain?

Contain Carbon (C) & Hydrogen (H)

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22

How are organic compounds made?

BY Living Things

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23

Are organic compounds complex or smaller molecules?

Complex molecules made of smaller molecules.

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24

Are macromolecules organic or inorganic?

organic

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25

Types of lipids examples

  • Cell Membrane (phospholipid)

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26

Function of lipids

  • Energy storage= WHICH IS very concentrated --> TWICE as much energy as carbohydrates --> stored in BONDS

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27
  • Cushions and Insulates body

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28

building blocks of lipids

1 Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids

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29

Saturated fats

most animals fats

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30

limit the amount in your diet- contributes to heart disease

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31

Unsaturated fats

Plants, vegetable, and fish fats

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32

Better choice in your choice

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33

Cholesterol is a good molecule in...

vitamin transport

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34

What does cholesterol make?

hormones

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35

What does too much cholesterol in your blood lead to?

blood clots/heart attack

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36

What are cell membranes made of?

phospholipids

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37

What are hydrophilic tails?

They are apart of the cell membrane and are on the outside touching water. They are HYDROPHILIC (likes water)

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38

What are hydrophobic tails?

They are inside of the cell membrane and are on the outside touching water. They are HYDROPHILIC (scared of water)

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39

What does the cell membrane do?

forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell

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40

What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides or simple sugars; glucose, galactose and fructose.

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41

Chemical formula for glucose

C(6)H(12)O(6)

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42

what do names for sugar end in?

-ose

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43

hydrogen and oxygen ratio in glucose

2:1

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44

function of carbohydrates

main source of (short term)energy

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45

what are monosaccharides?

Single sugar molecules

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46

What are disaccharides?

sucrose, lactose, maltose (double sugars made of monosaccharides)

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47

Where in the cell does carbohydrates make short term energy?

mitochondria

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48

building blocks of carbs

monosaccharides (simple sugars) include glucose, fructose, sucrose

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49

dehydration synthesis

Typical of carbohydrates.

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50

Monomers are combined by removal of a water molecule.

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51

Carbs in Your Body

Monosaccharides - single sugars

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52
  • Examples: Glucose, Fructose

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53

Disaccharides - double sugar

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54
  • Ex: Sucrose (table sugar)

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55

Polysaccharides - many sugars

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56
  • Starch - energy storage in plants

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57
  • Glycogen - energy storage in animals

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58

What is the function of nucleic acids?

contains instructions that cells need to carry out life processes

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59

Building blocks of nucleic acids

Nucleotides (Monomer)

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60

Made of Phosphate, Sugar and Molecular Bases

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61

Nucleic Acids in Your Body

DNA - genetic material that carries information about an organism

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62
  • in a nucleus

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63

RNA - plays an important role in making proteins in a cell

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  • in both nucleus or cytoplasm(ribosomes)

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65

Functions of proteins

Growth and Repair

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66

Hormones, Enzymes, etc

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67

building blocks of proteins

20 different Amino Acids

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68

What is the structure of proteins?

Proteins fold and twist into 3D shapes

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69

WHY?

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The order that the amino acids bond together determines the protein's shape and function

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71

Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis (production)

Order of DNA bases --> Order of Amino Acids --> Protein Shape --> Protein Function

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72

What is a chemical reaction?

Series of chemical symbols & formulas to represent a chemical reaction.

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73

A process that changes one set of substances into another set of substances

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74

Example:

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75

Iron + Oxygen

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76

Enzymes _______ chemical reactions

speed up (catalyze)

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77

How do you know a chemical reaction has occurred?

Bubbling, spark, color change, heat, smell change

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78

Reactants (starting materials)

the substances that undergo change in the reaction

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79

In order to speed up chemical reactions, scientists add ________.

catalysts

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80

What do metabolic reactions require?

ALL metabolic reactions in living organisms REQUIRE enzymes to work

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81

What are enzymes?

Proteins made up of amino acids that act as organic catalysts

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82

Products (End results)

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

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83

Proteins in Your Body

  • Hormones - chemical messengers in the body; cell communication

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84
  • Enzymes - Speed up chemical reactions

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85
  • Cell Membrane - Receptors and Transport Proteins

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86
  • Antibodies - Fight off infection

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87

polymers

Polymers are large molecules made of smaller parts.

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88

monomers

Monomers combine to form polymers.

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89

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis undoes dehydration synthesis.

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90

Polymers are broken down by applying a water molecule.

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91

What are the elements of nucleic acids

CHONP

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92

What are the elements of carbohydrates

CHO

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93

What are the elements of lipids

CHO

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94

What are the elements of proteins

CHON

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95

What makes organic catalysts

Proteins made up of amino acids

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96

chemical equation

A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products

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97

what does synthesize molecules?

build molecules

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98

what does digest molecules?

break down molecules

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99

What do enzymes do to activation energy?

They lower it

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100

What is activation energy?

energy needed to start a reaction

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