Bio Exam 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Scientific method steps

1 / 156

Tags and Description

Intro to Bio.

157 Terms

1

Scientific method steps

  1. Observation

  2. Hypothesis

  3. Test

  4. Conclusion

New cards
2

Does data always prove hypothesis?

No. Conclusions reject hypothesis, accepts hypothesis, supports.

New cards
3

Inductive reasoning

Specific to general

Ex. One bacteria(specific) and all bacteria (all bacteria)

New cards
4

Aspects of science

  1. Repeatable

  2. Can be verified and edited

  3. Dynamic

  4. Objective

New cards
5

Limitations of science

  1. Some things can’t be tested

  2. Equipment/ tech is limited or unavailable

  3. People can’t accept or aren’t ready to accept hypothesis

New cards
6

Science creates

  1. Model

  2. Theory

  3. Law

New cards
7

Chemistry

Deals with the composition and property of matter.

New cards
8

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

  1. Liquid

  2. Solid

  3. Gas

  4. Plasma

New cards
9

Oxygen

Most in body of mass

New cards
10

Carbon

#1 in all organisms by # of atoms

New cards
11

Hydrogen

#1 in universe

New cards
12

Atom

(Un-cuttable)

Smallest unit of matter

New cards
13

Proton

+1 charge

Mass of 1

Found in nucleus

New cards
14

Neutron

0 charge

Mass of 1

Found in nucleus

New cards
15

Electron

-1 charge

No mass

Found in the space area energy levels

New cards
16

Rutherford gold foil experiment

Particles went straight through the space of the atom

All positive charge was held in the common nucleus of the atom

Light charges repel

New cards
17
<p>Bohr experiment</p>

Bohr experiment

Heated elements

If electron displaces energy, it would show dissipating energy through singular color

New cards
18

what is inside the nucleus ( atomic mass)

Neurons and protons

New cards
19

First level of atom

  1. Lower level

  2. Holds 2 electrons

New cards
20

Second level of atom

Holds 8 electrons

New cards
21

Third level of atom

Highest level

Can hold 18 electrons

Only 8 are involved with bonding

New cards
22

Isotopes

Same # protons, different # neutrons

New cards
23

unstable isotope

Carbon14

isotopes which radioactively decay to form new stable isotopes of the same element or a different element

New cards
24

unstable isotopes examples

  1. x-ray film

  2. Geiger counter (through noise)

  3. Scintillation medium (flashes of light)

New cards
25

Mendeleev

Arranged elements according to their atomic mass (P + N)

New cards
26

Mosely

Arranged elements according to atomic number (# of Protons)

New cards
27

atomic number

number of protons

New cards
28

atomic mass

number of protons and neutrons

New cards
29

how to find the number of neutrons

atomic mass - number of protons

ex:

Carbon:

12 - 6 = 6

Fluoride:

19 - 9 = 10

Chloride:

35 - 17 = 18

New cards
30

Bonds

Atoms bond to become more stable

  • forms molecules by filling outer energy level

    • can bond by either gaining/ giving/ sharing

New cards
31

Ionic bond

gaining and giving up electrons

New cards
32

positive ion

cation (more protons)

New cards
33

negative ion

Anion (more electrons)

New cards
34

covalent bond

sharing of outer level electrons and can be shared in a nonpolar or polar manner

_______________

New cards
35

octet bond

when the rule of outer bonds of 8 is satisfied

New cards
36

nonpolar covalent bond:

equal sharing of electrons

New cards
37

polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of electrons

hydrophobic (wa

New cards
38

hydrogen bond

the attraction of opposite partial charges.

causes pulling and tension

---------------

New cards
39

PH scale

power of hydrogen measured.

water: 7

humans: 7.4

New cards
40

buffer

molecule that resists a change in PH

New cards
41

natural state

homeostasis

New cards
42

buffer in body

bicarbonate and carbonic acid

New cards
43

Biochemicals

molecules of life and are all organic (contain carbon)

New cards
44
<p>Single bond</p>

Single bond

chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.

Covalent bond

<p>chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.</p><p>Covalent bond</p>
New cards
45
<p>Double bond</p>

Double bond

  1. a chemical bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms.

<ol><li><p>a chemical bond in which two pairs of <u>electrons</u> are shared between two <u>atoms</u>.</p></li></ol>
New cards
46

Triple bond

a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond. T

L

New cards
47

4 classes of Biochemicals

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Lipids

  3. Proteins

  4. Nucleic acids

New cards
48

Carbohydrates

Sugars + starch

New cards
49

monosaccharide

Simple sugars and sweet

Monosaccharide and Disaccharide

New cards
50

Monosaccharide examples

  1. Glucose

  2. Fructose

(Contains 5-6 carbon sugars)

New cards
51

Monosaccharide module

Chain and ring

New cards
52

Disaccharide examples

lactose, glucose, sucrose, Mattose

6 sided shape, house

New cards
53

Hydrocarbon backbone

C-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-H

New cards
54

Alcohol

OH + c-c-c-c-

New cards
55

Amine group

C-c-c-c-c-c+ N-H+-H

New cards
56

Acid group

C-c-c-c-c-c+C=O + -OH

New cards
57

Ketone, aldehyde group

C-c-c-c-c-c-c+ =O

New cards
58

Phosphate group (DNA)

C-c-c-c-c-c-c+ -P-O-O=O

New cards
59

Polysaccharide

Complex carbohydrates

  1. Starch

  2. Cellulose

  3. Glycogen

  4. Chitin

New cards
60

Starch is found in

Plants, energy storage

New cards
61

Cellulose

Makes up cell walls in plants

New cards
62

Glycogen

In animals, energy storage, liver muscle

New cards
63

Chitin

In insects, exoskeleton, fungi cell wall

New cards
64

Lipids

any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

  1. Energy storage

New cards
65

Triglycerides

C-C-C

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

New cards
66

Saturated f.a

C-C-C-C-C-C

All single bonds

Solid at room temperature

New cards
67

Unsaturated f.a

C-C-C-C-C=C-C

At least one double bond

Liquid at room temperature

New cards
68

polyunsaturated fatty acids

2+ double bonds

Omega-3 f.a

Anti-inflammatory

First double bond is found in 3rd fatty end

New cards
69

Omega-6 f.a examples

Corn

Peanuts

New cards
70

Omega-3 f.a

Fish, flax seed, walnut, leafy green, chia seeds

Essential to human diets

New cards
71

Trans fat

Product of hydrogenation process

Helps/ prevents polyunsaturated fats not go bad

New cards
72

CIS

process of hydrogenation process

bent on same sides

New cards
73

transconfiguration

like an arrow down from opposite sides.

has a higher melting point

contributes to heart disease

New cards
74

phospholipids

found in membrane structure

Phosphate grp + 2 f.a + 1 glycerol

New cards
75

phospholipid head

polar and hydrophilic

New cards
76

phospholipid fatty acid tails

nonpolar and hydrophobic

New cards
77

sterols

cholesterol- in animal cell membranes

precursor to hormones

testosterones

vitamin D

estrogen

<p>cholesterol- in animal cell membranes</p><p>precursor to hormones</p><p>testosterones</p><p>vitamin D</p><p>estrogen</p>
New cards
78

waxes

long chain of f.a + alcohol

coatings on leaves o prevent water loss or found in hair

<p>long chain of f.a + alcohol</p><p>coatings on leaves o prevent water loss or found in hair</p>
New cards
79

Proteins

enzyme, hormones, antibodies, structure, transport

  • shape determines the function

New cards
80

Primary structure (protein)

Linked amino acids

New cards
81

peptide bond

bond between Amino acids and protein

New cards
82

secondary structure (Protein)

hydrogen bonding

  • helix (coil)

  • B-sheet (silk)

New cards
83

tertiary structure

fold upon self (other bonds)

  • globula (enzymes)

New cards
84

Quartiary structure (protein)

2 or more polypides

  • hemoglobin

New cards
85

Denaturation

destroy of 3D shape

New cards
86

how is Denaturation done?

  1. by heat

    1. by changing of PH

New cards
87

Janssens

spectade makers, 2 lenses together

New cards
88

Galileo

improved on 1st microscope

New cards
89

Robert Hooke

corks made of compartments (cellule) (cells)

New cards
90

Anton Van Leewenhock

FATHER OF MICROSCOPY

  • made fine lenses 270xs

    • viewed animalcules

New cards
91

Robert Brown

Nucleus- for development

New cards
92

Schleidon

all plants have cells

New cards
93

Schwann

all animals have cells

New cards
94

Rudolph Virchow

All cells came from pre-existing cells

New cards
95

Cell theory

the cell is the smallest unit of life, and they come from pre-existing cells.

New cards
96

Animal Cell

does not have a cell wall

does not have chloroplast

New cards
97

plant cell

does not have a centriole

New cards
98

flagella

tails of bacteria that control locomotion

New cards
99

Prokaryotic

no nucleus

New cards
100

Eukaryotic

has a nucleus

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 144 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11009 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(52)
note Note
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 133 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard306 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)