ANS 123 Exam 2

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Karyogamy

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104 Terms

1

Karyogamy

fusion of ovum and sperm (pro-nuclei)

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2

Germ layers

Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

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3

Pre-natal

Before birth

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Peri-natal

Around birth

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Post-natal

After birth

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Neo-natal

Newly born

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Totipotency

Ability to express ALL the genes in the organism's genome; "all the things"

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8

Pluripotency

Ability to express genes that code for germ layers; "all three layers"

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9

Multipotency

Ability to express genes that code for closely related family of cells (Progenitor cells); 1 derivative of 1 germ layer

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10

Unipotency

Ability to undergo a limited number of divisions and express genes that produce SINGLE type of cell (Precursor cells); 1 kind of functional specialized cell

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11

True stem cells include...

Totipotent cells and pluripotent

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12

Morphpgenesis

generation, differentiation, and growth of tissues and organs during development; where organism takes shape

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13

Morphogenesis covers

cleavage, layer formation, gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis

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14

T/F Morphogenesis happens post-fetilization

True

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15

Delamination

splitting single sheet of cells by loss of adhesion

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16

Delamination Example

Hypoblast formation

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17

Ingression

Division and migration of cells into internal area to form a separate layer

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18

Ingression Example

Internal cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast separation

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19

Invagination

Depression in the cell layer depends due to cell vision; sides come together and pinch off existing layer

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20

Invagination Example

Neural tube formation

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21

Epiboly

Increase in # of cells on outer surface

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22

Epiboly Example

Primitive streak formation

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23

Involution

Inward rolling of cells along an exiting membrane to create layer

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24

Involution Example

Myeline sheath formation

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25

Fertilization

Fusion of female and male gametes to achieve karyogamy; female part is the ovum and the male gamete is the sperm

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26

T/F Female birds and mammals can produce an infinite number of ova during their lifetime

False; birds and mammals have # ova set peri-natally

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27

Cleavage Functions

  1. Increase # cells via mitosis without growth 2) Establish embryonic vs. extraembryonic cell line

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28

Cleavage Result Avian vs. Mammalian

Avian: blastoderm vs. Mammalian: blastocysts; ends when blastocyst makes contact with uterine wall

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29

Meroblastic

Yolk does not get cleaved; avian

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30

Discoidal

Cells clump together into a disc-shape; avian

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31

Open cell

Cytoplasm mixes with yolk; avian

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32

T/D After 1-16 divisions daughter cells form a complete cell membrane (Avian)

False; open cells

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33

Blastomere (Avian)

closed cell membrane and 16 divisions; not identical

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34

Blastoderm (Avian)

Most central are closed cells (embryo only) and open cells beneath and around embryo

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35

Doral-ventral axis (Avian)

Dorsal = egg shell side Ventral = Yolk side

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36

Anterior-Posterior axis Avian)

Egg rotates in shell gland "heavy" blastoderm tilts away from top of yolk; lower end of blastoderm = anterior and upper end = posterior

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37

Two cell lineages of blastoderm (Avian)

Closed cell and Open cells

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38

Avian cleavage overview

  1. Increase number of cells thu cell division 2) Establish embryonic vs. extraembryonic cell lines 3) Establish axes of polarity

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39

Holoblastic

Extends completely through ovum; Mammalian

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40

Rotational

Division occurs along different cleavage planes; Mammalian

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41

T/F Cleavage occurs asynchronously to reposition cells with reference to one another

True; Mammalian

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42

Compaction

cells become tightly joinged

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43

Cavitation

Formation of fluid filled cavity

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44

3rd Cleavage; Mammalian

Cells squish and form tight junctions to seal off the interior

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45

Inner cell mass (ICM)

small group of completely enclosed cells within interior (embryo proper)

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46

Trophectoferm

external cells form epithelial-like layer (placenta); form tight junctions and fill morula with water

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47

Compacted mrula

Has ICM and Trophectoderm; at 8-32 cells

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48

Mammalian cleavage overview

  1. Increase number of cells thu cell division 2) Establish embryonic vs. extraembryonic cells lines 3)

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49

T/F ICM cells undergo apoptosis and cells bunch along one side

True, then forms blastocoel

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50

Blastoceol

Resulting fluid filled cavity; from ICM

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51

2 Blastocyst lineages (Mammalian)

ICM and Trophectoderm

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52

Layer Formation

irreversible physical segregation of cell lineages to form Hypoblast; prior to oviposition/implantation (visceral endoderm in rodents)

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53

T/F Hypoblast is called "viseral endoderm" in rodents

True

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54

T/F Oviposition refers to Mammals

False, refers to avain

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55

T/F Implantation refers to Mammals

True, refers to mammals

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56

Setting up for layer separation; avian

  1. Blastoderm undergoes reduction via cell shedding 2) Fluid filled subgerminal cavity

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57
  1. Blastoderm undergoes reduction via cell shedding; Avian

Blastoderm undergoes reduction via cell shedding

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58

T/F Delaminated cells undergo apoptosis

True

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59
  1. Fluid Filled subgerminal cavity forms; Avian

Blastoderm cell absorb water from albumen and pump between ventral surface and yolk (Similar to mammalian cavitation)

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60

Area pellucida

Clear central area of clear cell undergoing rapid division, central blastoderm bull's eye; Avian

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61

Area pellucida becomes...

embryo proper

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62

Area opaca and marginal zone becomes...

Extraembryonic tissues and temporary embryonic structures

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63

Area opaca

Area of open cells in contact with yolk outer ring; Avian

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64

Marginal zone

Mixture of open and closed cells diving AP and AO middel ring; Avian

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65

Epiblast

Continuous single-cell layer of AP+MZ+AO

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66

Setting up for layer separation; mammalian

  1. Cell determination and differentiation

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67

Cell determination and differentiation; mammalian

Pluripotent ICM undergo determination; Epiblast & PE sifferentiation & seoarate layer, multipotent trophectoderm proliferate

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68

ICM undergo determination into...

Epiblast progenitor cells and primitive endoderm progenitor cells (PE)

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69

Separation of layers

Hypoblast is transitory stucture to prepare embryo for cellular complexity

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70

T/F Separation of layers is well studied in birds and mammals

False, well studied in birds not so much mammals

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71

Layer Formation (Avian)

AP epiblast cells delaminate and migrate toward yolk to become hypoblast cells; epiblast creates embryo and blastocoel cavity between epi- and hypoblast

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72

Blastula

epiblast + hypoblast = bilaminar

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73

Hypoblast; Avian

Formed in subgerminal cavity below AP epiblast, gives rise to primordial germ cells; very transitory does not contribute

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Elongation; Mammals

Epiblast forms amniotic cavity where proximal = aminion and distal = epiblast

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Establish anterior-posterior axis; Mammals

Determination and differentiation PE cells split visceral endoderm/Hypoblast and Yolk sac endoderm; VE activated to distal VE

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DVE (Distal Visceral endoderm); mammalian

Migrates up anterior side of blastocyst, becomes AVE

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77

Blastula; mammalian

Epiblast and Hypoblast/VE = bilaminar

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78

End of layer formation

Avian and Mammalian have blastula

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79

Gastrulation

cells differentiate and form lining of gut; starts posterior and goes anterior

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80

Primitive streak

Site of ingression in epiblast; massive cell proliferation

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81

How many phases does Gastrulation occur?

2, Ingression and Regression

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82

Ingression

Primitive streak formation; first wave = forming three germ cells form endo, meso, and endoderm; second wave =

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83

T/F: Changes during Ingression will set the stage for an additional layer to form

True

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84

Koller's sickle; avian

Blastomere forming the vanguard of posterior marginal zone; crescent shape, crucial for primitive steak and enables endoblast to replace hypoblast

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85

Endoblast; avian

Hypoblast replaced by sheet of endoblast cells; epiblast cells on Koller's sickle condense and begins gastrulation

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86

T/F Endoblast is a permanent structure

False, it is a temporary stucture

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87

T/F Epiblast cells below KS groove form primitive streak

False, cells above KS do this

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88

Epiboly; avain

Primitive steak triggers epiboly across epiblast and mirgrate; replaced by future ectoderm cells

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89

2 New layers in blastocoel; avian

Endoderm (replace endoblast) and Mesoderm (above endoderm)

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90

Migrated cells become....(Avian)

Mesoderm, head process and notochord, and endoderm

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91

Hensen's node

at anterior end, specialized thickened region in primitive streak (left and right fully determined)

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92

T/F Epiboly gives rise to ectoderm in epiblast

True

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93

Endoderm; mammals

is replaces the endoblast/hypoblast/all VE

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94

Blastula is ____ and becomes gastrula ______

bilaminar, trilaminar

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95

Regression

Primitive streak degeneration, Hensen's node moves posterior, neurulation

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96

T/F as primitive streak regresses the notochord completes

True; concludes with formation of anal region

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97

Nerulation

formation of spinal cord precursor from epiblast ectoderm

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98

T/F Neurulation begins after gastrulation

False, Neurulation begins as primitive streak regresses during gastrulation

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99

Neural tube

rudiment of CNS, formed first

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100

Notochord

rod of mesoderm cells form under epiblast after Hensen's node moves; temporary structure and initials CNS formation

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