SOC 202 Final Exam

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

anxiety disorders

1 / 109

Tags and Description

110 Terms

1

anxiety disorders

feelings of worry and fearfulness that last for months at a time

New cards
2

commodification

the changing of something not generally thought of as a commodity into something that can be bought and sold in a marketplace

New cards
3

contested illnesses

illnesses that are questioned or considered questioned or considered questionable by some medical professionals

New cards
4

demedicalization

the social process that normalizes "sick" the social process that normalizes "sick" behavior

New cards
5

disability

a reduction in one's ability to perform everyday tasks; the World Health Organization notes that this is a social limitation

New cards
6

epidemiology

the study of the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases

New cards
7

impairment

the physical limitations a less-able person faces

New cards
8

individual mandate

a government rule that requires to have insurance coverage or they will have to pay a penalty

New cards
9

medical sociology

the systematic study of how humans manage issues of health and illness, disease and disorders, and healthcare for both the sick and the healthy

New cards
10

medicalization

the process by which aspects of life that were considered bad or deviant are redefined as sickness and needing medical attention to remedy

New cards
11

medicalization of deviance

the process that changes "bad" behavior into "sick" behavior

New cards
12

mood disorders

long-term, debilitating illnesses like depression and bipolar disorder

New cards
13

morbidity

the incidence (occurrence) of disease

New cards
14

mortality

the number of deaths in a given time or place

New cards
15

personality disorders

disorders that cause people to behave in ways that are seen as abnormal to society but seem normal to them

New cards
16

private healthcare

health insurance that a person buys from a private company; private healthcare can either be employer-sponsored or direct-purchase

New cards
17

public healthcare

health insurance that is funded or provided by the government

New cards
18

social epidemiology

the study of the causes and distribution of diseases; the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population

New cards
19

socialized medicine

when the government owns and runs the entire healthcare system

New cards
20

stereotype interchangeability

stereotypes that don't change and that get recycled for application to a new subordinate group

New cards
21

stigmatization

the act of spoiling someone's identity; they are labeled as different, discriminated against, and sometimes even shunned due to an illness or disability

New cards
22

stigmatization of illness

illnesses that are discriminated against and whose sufferers are looked down upon or even shunned by society

New cards
23

underinsured

people who spend at least 10 percent of their income on healthcare costs that are not covered by insurance

New cards
24

universal healthcare

a system that guarantees healthcare for everyone

New cards
25

health

state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

New cards
26

disease model

patients are first diagnosed and then treated for illness; critics argue that there is lack of emphasis on prevention

New cards
27

Characteristics of U.S. Healthcare

  1. does not provide universal healthcare

  2. includes healthcare delivers (doctors, clinics)

  3. for-profit insurance companies

  4. government programs that provide health care for aged and the poor

New cards
28

Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)

aimed to address the problem of too many uninsured Americans

New cards
29

Medicare

provides health insurance to older Americans

New cards
30

Medicaid

Provides health insurance to poor Americans

New cards
31

Key Provisions of the Affordable Care Act

  1. expansion of availability of health care insurance to all Americans

  2. insurance companies may not deny coverage to children (under age 19) because of preexisting conditions

  3. elimination of lifetime coverage limits on insurance coverage

  4. insurance plans must cover preventive care, such as mammograms and colonoscopies, without charging deductibles and co-pays

  5. young adults are allowed to stay on parents' plan until age 26

  6. early retirees keep their employer-sponsored benefits until they are eligible for Medicare

New cards
32

Functionalism Analysis of Health, Medicine, and Illness

key is to keep society's members healthy, illness is "dysfunctional" because it reduces people's ability to perform their roles in society; "sick role"; legitimation by the physician; responsibility of sick personn

New cards
33

sick role

the pattern of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them; must look the part; society provides medical care but also a role

New cards
34

legitimation

the act of a physician certifying an illness is genuine

New cards
35

responsibility of sick person

try to get well, seek medical care

New cards
36

Conflict Theory of Health, Medicine, and Illness

health and health care reflects broader inequalities in society, health status, access to health care; commodification of health, healthcare system is rooted in capitalism, healthcare is a commodity; emphasizes disparities in access to health care and in health; comparing health care access in United States to other industrialized countries

New cards
37

Symbolic Interaction Analysis of Health, Medicine, and Illness

the importance of social construction, issues of diagnosis, importance of American Medical Association in determining illness, implications; contested illness

New cards
38

sustainable development

development that occurs without depleting or damaging the natural envrionment

New cards
39

asylum-seekers

those who claim to refugee status have not been validated

New cards
40

cancer cluster

a geographic area with high levels of cancer in it’s population

New cards
41

carrying capacity

the amount of people that can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources

New cards
42

climate change

long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity

New cards
43

concentric zone model

a model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones

New cards
44

cornucopian theory

a theory that asserts human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population

New cards
45

demographic transition theory

a theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development

New cards
46

demography

the study of population

New cards
47

e-waste

the disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics

New cards
48

environmental racism

the burdening of economically and socially disadvantaged communities with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards

New cards
49

environmental sociology

the sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment

New cards
50

exurbs

communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents high socioeconomic status

New cards
51

fertility rate

a measure noting the actual number of children born

New cards
52

fracking

hydraulic fracturing, a method used to recover gas and oil from shale by drilling down into the earth and directing a high-pressure mixture of water, sand, and proprietary chemicals into the rock

New cards
53

gentrification

the entry of upper- and upper-class residents to city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent

New cards
54

human ecology

a functionalist perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment

New cards
55

internally displaced person

someone who fled his or her home while remaining inside the country’s borders

New cards
56

Malthusian theory

a theory asserting that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventative checks (measures to reduce fertility)

New cards
57

magalopolis

a large urban corridor that encompasses several cities surrounding suburbs and exurbs

New cards
58

metropolis

the area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs

New cards
59

mortality rate

a measure of the number of people in a population who die

New cards
60

NIMBY

“Not In My Back Yard” the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will affect them directly

New cards
61

pollution

the introduction of contaminants into an environment at levels that are damaging

New cards
62

population composition

a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates

New cards
63

population pyramid

a graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex

New cards
64

refugee

an individual who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster

New cards
65

sex ratio

the ratio of men to women in a given population

New cards
66

suburbs

the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute

New cards
67

urban sociology

the subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization

New cards
68

urbanization

the study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities

New cards
69

white flight

the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs

New cards
70

zero population growth

a theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration

New cards
71

early pioneers of environmental sociology

Dunlap, Catton, Schnaiberg, Buttell, Freudenberg

New cards
72

Treadmill of Production

focuses on capitalist accumulation; environmental withdraws and additions

New cards
73

key scholars of treadmill of production

Schnaiber, Gould, Pellow

New cards
74

Ecological Modernization

emphasizes the ways technology can improve environmental conditions

New cards
75

key scholars of ecological modernization

Mol, Spaargarten, Cohen

New cards
76

Total number of people in society at any given time are based on these variables:

births, deaths, and migrations

New cards
77

crude birthrate

number of babies born each year for every 1,000 members of the population

New cards
78

crude death rate

number of deaths each year per 1,000 people

New cards
79

life expectancy

the average life span of a country’s population

New cards
80

acting crowds

crowds of people who are focused on a specific action or goal

New cards
81

alternative movements

social movements that limit themselves to self-improvement changes in individuals

New cards
82

assembling perspective

a theory that credits individuals as behaving as rational thinkers and views crowds as engaging in purposeful behavior and collective action

New cards
83

casual crowds

people who share close proximity without really interacting

New cards
84

collective behavior

a noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage

New cards
85

conventional crowds

people who come together for a regularly scheduled event

New cards
86

crowd

a fairly large number of people who share close proximity

New cards
87

crowdsourcing

the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people

New cards
88

diagnostic framing

a social problem that is stated in a clear, easily understood manner

New cards
89

emergent norm theory

a perspective that emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior

New cards
90

expressive crowds

crowds who share opportunities to express emotions

New cards
91

flash mob

a large group of people who gather together in a spontaneous activity that lasts a limited amount of time

New cards
92

frame alignment process

using bridging, amplification, extension, and transformation as an ongoing and intentional means of recruiting participants to a movement

New cards
93

mass

a relatively large group with a common interest, even if they may not be in close proximity

New cards
94

modernization

the process that increases the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies

New cards
95

motivational framing

a call to action

New cards
96

new social movement theory

a theory that attempts to explain the proliferation of postindustrial and postmodern movements that are difficult to understand using traditional social movement theories

New cards
97

NGO

nongovernmental organizations working globally for numerous humanitarian and environmental causes

New cards
98

prognostic framing

social movements that state a clear solution and a means of implementation

New cards
99

public

an unorganized, relatively diffuse group of people who share ideas

New cards
100

reform movements

movements that seek to change something specific about the social structure

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 236 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3120 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(17)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 188 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard622 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard103 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 111 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard79 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)