Envi study guide questions

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What was the Green Revolution?

1 / 105

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

106 Terms

1

What was the Green Revolution?

Happened in the 50s and 60s where agricultural research stations addressed the issues of hunger in developing countries, figured out how to grow food more efficiently

New cards
2

Chronic under nutrition or hunger

People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs, which threaten their ability to live healthy and productive lives

New cards
3

Malnourishment

Nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to absorb or utilize essential nutrient

New cards
4

Macronutrients

Carbs, fibers, fats, proteins

New cards
5

Micronutrients

Key vitamins and other minerals

New cards
6

Vitamin and mineral defiencies

2 billion people suffer from mineral or vitamin deficiencies: vitamin A, zinc, iron, iodine

New cards
7

What is famine and what leads to it

Large scale food shortages accompanied by widespread starvation and even death, can occur after large scale natural disasters, unstable governments, or conflict in the region

New cards
8

Food desert

Geographic area that lack nutritious food, no grocery stores nearby

New cards
9

Food swamp

Geographic areas that have an overabundance of unhealthy food, sell lots of processes and unhealthy food, lots of fast food

New cards
10

Organizations addressing issues of food deserts

North side of Binghamton - Greater Good Grocery opened in 2020, non-profit grocery store that sells a variety of food at discounted rates

VINES (Volunteers Improving Neighborhood Environments) - Helps with growing and showing people how to grow their own food and gives them access to healthy foods

New cards
11

What are three major crops grown in the US

Wheat, rice, corn

New cards
12

What are some trends we see with food production and diet? How do different countries rank in production/consumption of products we went over in class?

Trend in meat production and consumption: China produces a lot of meat, specifically pork US produces mainly beef and poultry

New cards
13

What are CAFOs? What are the problems associated with them?

CAFOs - Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

Total global consumption of meat has doubled since the 1970s

Major emitter of one particular greenhouse gas - Methane, higher potency of carbon dioxide

New cards
14

Aquaculture

Farming fish

New cards
15

Fishery

Concentration of wild aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean or inland body of water

New cards
16

Bycatch

Unwanted fish collected

New cards
17

Problem with commercial fishing

Habitats can be destroyed especially with trawling on the ocean floor, fish too much and fisheries depleting rapidly

New cards
18

Trawling

Dragging a large net along seafloor

New cards
19

Purse-seine fishing

Catch surface dwelling species

New cards
20

Long-lining

Lines with baited hooks - swordfish, tuna, sharks, halibut, cod

New cards
21

Farm subsides

Government payments or other types of support intended to help farmers stay in business

New cards
22

Concerns with subsides

Concentration with payments

New cards
23

Soil conservation program

Conservation reserve program

New cards
24

Soil

Complex mixture of rock pieces, mineral nutrients, decaying organic matter, water, air, and living organisms that support plant and animal life

New cards
25

Particle sizes

Categorized by sand, salt, silt, clay

Sand is the largest silt is the middle and clay is the smallest

New cards
26

Loam

Well-suited for plant growth because it allows water to pass through 40-40-20 (sand,silt, clay)

New cards
27

Soil profile

The sequence of horizontal layers in soil

New cards
28

Organic layer

Partly decomposed plant material (leaves, twigs, mosses)

New cards
29

Topsoil

Mineral soil from the plant material and some organic

New cards
30

Subsoil

Inorganic matter, broken down rock, more clay

New cards
31

Parent material

Weathered rock (sand, windblown silt, bedrock, other mineral material on which the soil is built)

New cards
32

Carbon cycle

Photosynthesis - Done by plants that take in atmospheric carbon and produce oxygen

New cards
33

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen gas - Makes up 78% of the volume in the atmosphere

New cards
34

How are plants able to capture nitrogen

Lightning strikes, bacteria in the soil (nitrogen fixing bacteria)

New cards
35

Phosphorus cycle

Phosphate rocks contain phosphate ions Water runs over rocks

Phosphates - Important nutrient for plant growth

Usually a limiting factor in soil

New cards
36

Eutrophication

Excessive richness of nutrients in a body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen

New cards
37

Erosion

The movement of soil components by water or wind

New cards
38

The dust bowl

1930, severe drought

New cards
39

Effects of dust storms

Mass migration, of mice and men, the grapes of wrath

New cards
40

Dust bowl led to

Establishment of soil erosion service, prairie states forestry project, 220 million trees planted

New cards
41

Soil sanitization

Accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers

New cards
42

Waterlogging

Accumulation of water underground, raising the water table

New cards
43

Insecticides

Kill insects

New cards
44

Herbicides

Kill plants

New cards
45

Fungicides

Kill fungi

New cards
46

Rodenticides

Kill rodents

New cards
47

Types of pesticides

Organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbons, neonicotinoids

New cards
48

General components of the food system

Generally goes from production to processing to distribution to marketing to purchasing to consumption to nutrient cycling

New cards
49

Environmental pressures in farmer decision making

Climate (timing and extent of temperature changes, precipitation changes, and natural disasters)

● Soil Nutrients and types and their associated deficiencies/ limitation and loss potential

● Plants and animals pests

● Plant disease

New cards
50

Financial realities of farmer decision making

● Cost of seed

● Regulation costs

● Loss from environmental pressures

● Harvesting costs

● Transportation costs and processing opportunities

● Market value

● Agreements with companies

New cards
51

Social dynamics of farmer decision making

Demand for the product

● Origin or DNA modifications

● Nutritional profile

● Quality/ appearance

Taste

New cards
52

Be able to give a general overview of the history of domestication of tomatoes including how chromosomes, DNA, genes, proteins, traits and mutations play into the process of domestication

1. Extract DNA or RNA from organism

2. Copy the one gene of interest

3. Modify the gene for plant expression

4. Transform plant cells

5. Propagate plant from cell

6. Breed the transgenic plant with other plants

New cards
53

Cross breeding

Combining 2 sexually compatible species

Plant breeder selects 2 different parents

With crossbreeding, there is not always a perfect outcome, rather takes a long time to narrow down what genotype and then what phenotype comes through

New cards
54

Transgenesis

Involves adding new genes to a genome

New cards
55

Gene editing

Editing within the genome you are working with, using laboratory techniques to get desirable traits

Same number of chromosomes and genes as starting plant

New cards
56

How do public perceptions and policy (including labeling) relate to the different genetic modification techniques?

Public Perceptions

● Safety

● Cultural Factors

● Environmental

● Trust in who makes or regulates these technologies

● Transparency

Policy

● Regulation

● Labeling

New cards
57

What are trends we see related to small farms referencing the figure we discussed in class?

500 million family farms produced 80% of food consumed worldwide

89% of farms in this country are small scale farms

Large scale farms are producing nearly 50% of food

New cards
58

Topsoil

Organic material in the soil which helps support microorganisms and Nutrients in soil

New cards
59

Terracing

Turning sloped land into terraces to catch soil and water from flowing downhill

New cards
60

Contour Planting

Planting crops perpendicular or along contour lines to create mini dams which allow plants to catch and capture sediments and nutrients

New cards
61

Strip-cropping with cover crop

Planting in rows or planting green in order to trap soil and prevent wind erosion, holds carbon

New cards
62

Alley cropping/agroforestry

Planting trees along with crop, prevents erosion due to complex root structures of trees, adds nutrients to soil when trees fall, helps support biodiversity

New cards
63

Organic fertilizer

Fertilizers that are naturally produced (animal manure, green manure, compost)

New cards
64

Crop rotation

Farmers can plant their crops for a year and instead of continuing to keep planting that crop each year, they can alternate by planting row crop one year and a nitrogen crop the next year, gives time for land to recover and helps in preventing erosion, helps in preventing pests

New cards
65

Alternatives to synthetic pesticides

Biological controls: natural predators, parasites, disease causing bacteria and viruses

New cards
66

Problems with biological controls

If you introduce an insect to keep away pests, that insect could end up becoming a pest if too many are added

New cards
67

Integrated pest management

Crops and pests are evaluated as parts of an ecosystem

This includes:

● Biological controls

● Cultivation controls (altering planting times)

● Possibly applying small amounts of pesticides

Taking into account chemical, biological, physical-mechanical, and cultural factors into consideration

New cards
68

Hydroponics

Growing plants with no soil, but instead exposing them to different types of nutrient rich water solution

New cards
69

Aquaponics systems

Growing fish and plants together

New cards
70

Organic agriculture

production system that is managed to respond to site specific conditions integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity (USDA)

New cards
71

Types of practices employed in organic ag

No hormones, antibiotics, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, genetic modification

New cards
72

Ways to support sustainable ag

Buying local

Help local economy

Reduction of greenhouse gasses

New cards
73

Ecological diversity

Complexity in the environment and all different communities which support different species

New cards
74

Why should we care about biodiversity

World species provide vital ecosystem and economic services

New cards
75

Existence value

relating to the importance we place on certain species just knowing that they exist

New cards
76

Threats to biodiversity

Habitat destruction: Deforestation specifically in agricultural land

● Fishing trollers destroying ocean bottom environments

● Oil and gas drilling

● Building of dams

New cards
77

Invasive species

Nonnative species that outcompete populations of many native species for food, disrupt ecosystem services, transmit diseases, and lead to economic losses

Ex: Zebra Mussels, Round Goby, Emerald Ash Borer, Spotted Lanternfly, Autumn Olive

New cards
78

What can be done about biodiversity

Endangered Species Act (1973)

● Endangered - About to be extinct

● Threatened - Keep an eye on numbers they are likely to be endangered

● Vulnerable - Animals that are naturally rare or depleted and can be a candidate for future

listing

U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service keep track of all of this

New cards
79

How can we support biodiversity

Research Funding

● Surveys

● Increasing inspection of imported goods

New cards
80

Seed banks

Storage environments to preserve genetic information

New cards
81

How do zoos and aquariums promote biodiversity

Captive Breeding

Challenges with reintroduction? Make sure they can live on their own Make sure habitat can support them

New cards
82

What is the case study about western U.S. forests related to drought, fires, and bark beetles?

American West Forest Threats

New cards
83

What changes do we see in forested land globally

There has been a decline in amount of forests, but North America has been making reforestation efforts

New cards
84

Why do we need forests

Lumber

● Fuel

● Pulp to make paper

● Recreation

● Reduce soil erosion

● Help with water retention

● Stores atmospheric carbon

● Provide habitat

New cards
85

Loss of tropical rainforests due to

Palm oil production

● Soybean plantations

● Cattle Grazing

● Logging

New cards
86

Ways to reduce deforestation

Cut down on illegal logging

● Subsidize sustainable forest practices

● Third party certifications promoting sustainable forestry practices

● Rainforest Alliance

● Sustainability Forestry Initiative

New cards
87

Surface fire

Burn undergrowth and leaf litter. They have ecological benefits in that help prevent more destructive fires, release seeds from cones of trees

New cards
88

Crown fires

Take place In the crown of trees. These are much more destructive and fast moving. Can kill wildlife, destroy most vegetation, increase topsoil erosion.

New cards
89

How does wind land-urban interface relate to fire

More susceptible to risks from fire

New cards
90

Problem facing grasslands

Overgrazing - Allowing livestock to eat so much forage that the ecosystem degrades by soil being too packed down that there are no spaces for water to soak into the soil

New cards
91

Solution to problems with grasslands

Rotational Grazing - Move animals around so they are not trampling the ground as much

New cards
92

What are the different U.S. land classifications, what practices in general are allowed in each, and what agency oversees each land classification?

National Forest System - managed by the U.S. Forest Service – can use for logging, livestock grazing, farming, oil/gas extraction, recreation, conservation

Bureau of Land Management - manages a variety of large tracts of land for mining, oil/gas extraction and livestock grazing

National Wildlife Refuge - managed by U.S. Fish and Wildlife service – meant to conserve fish, wildlife, and plants. Minimal recreation activities allowed – birding, photography, fishing, hunting

National Park System - managed by the National Park Service – can camp, hike, fish, boat

New cards
93

History of national park system

U.S National Park service established in 2016

Stephen Mather - 1st director

Wanted to make them attractive and comfortable for tourists Lots of hotels, roads build

New cards
94

How can communities be involved in land protection

Guanacaste National Park in Costa Rica where the local community has been involved in protection and restoration efforts of the land.

local farmers were paid to remove nonnative species and plant trees, students and citizen groups studied the park’s ecology, and were cited for ecotourism which helped promote the local economy.

New cards
95

What did wangari maathai do related to forests

promoted tree planting in Kenya – what became known as the “Green Belt Movement”

New cards
96

What are coral reefs?

World's oldest, most diverse, and most productive ecosystems that form in clear, warm coastal waters in tropical areas.

New cards
97

What is happening to coral reefs?

Climate change increasing ocean temperature, increasing ocean acidity, destructive fishing practices

New cards
98

How are coral reefs being restored?

Harvesting coral fragments and growing them in underwater nurseries, growing coral in conditions we expect to see in future, "Assisted evolution"

New cards
99

Remediation

 You employ chemical, physical, or biological methods to remove pollution, methods relatively mild and non-destructive

New cards
100

Bio Remediation

 Using bacteria or fungi to help clean up a site and restore ecosystem

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 265 people
Updated ... ago
4.1 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1806 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(11)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard126 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard335 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard240 terms
studied byStudied by 161 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)