CC1 6TH LE

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70-110 mg/dl

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1

70-110 mg/dl

general normal blood glucose level

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2

40-70 mg/dl

general normal CSF glucose level

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3

60-75%

percentage of CSF glucose concentration in comparison to blood glucose concentration

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4

approx. 2 hours

how long does it take to restore the CSF/blood glucose equilibrium

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5

differential diagnosis of meningitis

significance of measurement of CSF glucose levels

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6

screening/monitoring

urine glucose is usually only quantified for this purpose

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7

qualitative

how are random specimens for urine glucose examined

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8

>=30mg/dl

screening processes of urine glucose should be able to detect at least how much glucose

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9

venous serum/plasma

standard clinical specimen for glucose quantitation

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10

within 1 hour

how long should the separation of blood cells from the liquid portion be performed

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11

morning

glucose levels are higher at what time

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12

afternoon

glucose levels are lower at what time

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13

RBCs have enzymes that metabolize glucose

why should RBCs be separated from plasma/serum when quantifying glucose

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14

16 hours

fasting for glucose determination should not go beyond

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15

serum

PLASMA/SERUM: glucose is more stable at room temperature

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16

7 mg/dl/hr

at RT, unprocessed glucose samples are metabolized at what rate

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17

2 mg/dl/hr

at 4C, unprocessed glucose samples are metabolized at what rate

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18

gold top tube

red top tube w/ serum separator

these tubes are used to minimize the loss of glucose in serum samples

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19

5 times

how many times is the gold top tube inverted

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20

5 minutes

how long does it take for blood to clot in gold top tubes

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21

gray top tube

what tube is used to preserve glucose in plasma specimens

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22

sodium fluoride

what is the additive in gray top tubes that acts as both an anticoagulant and a preservative

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23

90 minutes

duration of acceptable delay in examination when using gray top tubes in cases without bacterial contamination/leukocytosis

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24

fluoride/iodoacetate

inhibit the glycolytic process and prevent most glucose consumption by erythrocytes

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25

48 hours

how long does serum/plasma glucose remain stable when refrigerated

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26

postprandial specimens

capillary blood glucose is increased in this type of specimen when compared to fasting venous samples

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27

0.055

factor used to convert mg% to mmol/L

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28

creatine

creatinine

uric acid

glutathione

ergothioneine

reducing substances which react like glucose

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29

saifer-gerstenfield

polarographic

dextostix

glucose oxidase methods

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30

SPM assay

electric current assay

glucose dehydrogenase methods

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31

condensation with:

aromatic amines - o-toluidine

phenols -anthrone

condensation methods

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32

false high

ALKALINE COPPER REDUCTION METHODS FALSE HIGH/LOW:

blood taken after meals

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33

false high

ALKALINE COPPER REDUCTION METHODS FALSE HIGH/LOW:

not clear pff

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34

false high

ALKALINE COPPER REDUCTION METHODS FALSE HIGH/LOW:

delayed filtrate preparation of sample

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35

false low

ALKALINE COPPER REDUCTION METHODS FALSE HIGH/LOW:

boiling is done at a lesser period of time

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36

false low

ALKALINE COPPER REDUCTION METHODS FALSE HIGH/LOW:

exposure of the solution to air during the heating process

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37

causes oxidation and reverses the reaction

effect of air to reduction methods

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38

80-120 mg/dl

normal value for folin wu method

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39

420 nm

analytical wavelength in the folin wu method

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40

sulfuric acid

10% sodium tungstate

reagents used to prepare the PFF in folin wu method

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41

chocolate brown

color or precipitate in the making of PFF in the folin wu method

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42

alkaline copper tartrate

reactant added in the folin wu method

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43

nelson somogyi (10 minutes)

folin wu (6 minutes)

which method spends more time heating the specimen in a water bath

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44

nelson somogyi (2 minutes)

folin wu (3 minutess)

which method spends less time cooling the specimen in a cold water bath

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45

100 mg%

glucose concentration of the standards used in the folin wu and nelson somogyi methods

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46

phosphomolybdic acid

chromogen used in folin wu method

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47

phosphomolybdenum blue

end product measured in the folin wu method

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48

its bottom is constricted to prevent the oxidation of the sample

what is the purpose of using folin wu tubes over normal test tubes in the folin wu method

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49

false high

FALSE HIGH/FALSE LOW: extension of the boiling process in the folin wu method

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50

TRUE

TRUE/FALSE: the intensity of the color of phosphomolybdenum blue is proportional to the concentration of reducing substances

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51

FALSE

TRUE/FALSE: the intensity of the color of phosphomolybdic acid is proportional to the concentration of reducing substances

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52

TRUE

TRUE/FALSE: the intensity of the color of arsenomolybdenum blue is proportional to the concentration of reducing substances

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53

nelson somogyi

the most accurate redox method

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54

saccharoid free PFF

why is nelson somogyi considered the most accurate redox method

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55

barium sulfate

in the preparation of PFF in nelson somogyi, this acts as an adsorbent to which saccharoids adhere

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56

65-95 mg/dl

normal value for serum glucose in nelson somogyi method

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57

50-70 mg/dl

normal value for CSF in nelson somogyi method

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58

whole blood

sample used for folin wu method

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59

whole blood

sample used for nelson somogyi method

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60

barium hydroxide

zinc sulfide

reagents used in the preparation of PFF in nelson somogyi

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61

avocado color

color of the precipitate produced in the preparation of PFF for nelson somogyi

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62

arsenomolybdate

chromogen used for nelson somogyi

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63

arsenomolybdenum blue

end product measured in nelson somogyi

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64

bisulfite copper

benedicts method modifies folin wu method by replacing alkaline copper tartrate with

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65

citrate

stabilizer in benedict's reagent

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66

tartrate

stabilizer in fehling's reagent

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67

hagedorn-jensen method

alkaline-ferric reduction methods

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68

630 nm

analytical wavelength in o-toluidine method

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69

490 nm

analytical wavelength in nelson somogyi method

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70

glacial acetic acid - induce enolization of glucose

what is the acid used in o-toluidine method and what is its purpose

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71

green

color of the end product in o-toluidine method

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72

o-toluidine method

the most specific non-enzymatic method

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73

o-toluidine

condenses with the aldehyde group of aldohexoses

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74

icteric serum - false high

galactose load - false high

galactosemia - false high

mannose - false high

sources of error in o-toluidine method

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75

hemolyzed sample

this type of sample causes a false low because of its interference with glucose and NADPH accumulation

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76

gluconic acid

hydrogen peroxide

formed when glucose reacts with glucose oxidase

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77

oxygen acceptors - o-toluidine/ o-dianizidine

what is made to react with hydrogen peroxide in order to form a blue color when catalyzed by peroxidase

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78

FALSE: it is an indirect method

TRUE/FALSE: saifer-gerstenfield is a direct method since it measures true glucose, not reducing compounds

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79

peroxidase

indicator enzyme in saifer-gerstenfield

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80

glucose oxidase

most specific enzyme

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81

B-D-glucose

type of glucose that glucose oxidase reacts to

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82

mutarotase

facilitates the conversion of a-D-glucose to B-D-glucose

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83

trinder reaction

reaction used in the saifer-gerstenfield method

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84

3-methyl-2bentizolinone

hydrazone

N,N-dimethylaniline

chromogens used in the trinder reaction

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85

TRUE

TRUE/FALSE: the rate of increase in absorbance is directly proportional to the glucose concentration in saifer-gerstenfield

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86

uric acid, ascorbic acid, bilirubin, glutathione

causes interference in saifer-gerstenfield by inhibiting the reaction by competing with peroxidase

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87

false low

SAIFER GERSTENFIELD FALSE HIGH/LOW: uric acid

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88

false low

SAIFER GERSTENFIELD FALSE HIGH/LOW: ascorbic acid

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89

false low

SAIFER GERSTENFIELD FALSE HIGH/LOW: bilirubin

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90

false low

SAIFER GERSTENFIELD FALSE HIGH/LOW: glutathione

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91

false high

SAIFER GERSTENFIELD FALSE HIGH/LOW: strong oxidizing substances

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92

polarographic oxygen electrode

results in the polarographic method are measured using what

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93

FALSE: interferences with peroxidase are eliminated in polarographic method

TRUE/FALSE: polarographic method has the same interferences with saifer gerstenfield method

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94

FALSE: the rate of disappearance of oxygen is directly proportional to glucose

TRUE/FALSE: the rate of increase in oxygen is directly proportional to glucose in the polarographic method

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95

FALSE: it is a direct method

TRUE/FALSE: polarographic method is an indirect method since it utilizes two enzyme reactions

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96

peroxide

what should be eliminated in the polarographic method to stop the reaction from reversing

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97

molybdate

catalyzes the oxidation of iodide to iodine by peroxide

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98

catalase

catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol by peroxide

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99

acetaldehyde and water

what is formed from the oxidation of ethanol by peroxide

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100

dextrostrix

reagent strip method for glucose

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