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Pleiotropy, missense, point mutation, or substitution

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Biology

138 Terms

1

Pleiotropy, missense, point mutation, or substitution

In sickle cell anemia, GLU is switched out to VAL that lead to the red blood cells becoming sickle in shape. What type of mutation is this?

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2

Active site

The part of the enzyme into which the substrate fits is called the

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3

Sugar+O2 --> CO2 + H2O +ATP

Which reaction represents cellular respiration?

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4

Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms

Which of the following lists the terms from simplest to most complex?

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5

Response to the environment

As fall approaches, whitetail deer begin to accumulate a layer of body fat. This is an example of which characteristic of life?

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6

Adaptations

Penguins have stubby, flattened wings suitable for swimming. they also have short, thick feathers and a layer of blubber for warmth. these jet attributes could best be described as

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7

A tropical rainforest- community

Which of the following terms is not correctly matched with a correct example?

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8

Domain archaea

Prokaryotes belong to

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9

Protist

Which of the following kingdoms of eukaryotes is single cell?

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10

Encompasses many hypotheses

In science, a theory

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11

Observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory

Which answer choice lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?

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12

Dependent

In a controlled experiment, which variable is being measured?

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13

Cl-Mg

Consider the following electronegativity values: which of the below bonding types is the most polar?

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14

Sulfur

Which of the following is not one of the most common in living things?

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15

Protons; Neutrons

Isotopes have the same number of ____________, but a different number of ____________.

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16

Hydrogen bonds

Water molecules are polar with ends that exhibit partial positive and negative charges. these opposite charges allow water molecules to attract each other through:

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17

Electrons are shared between two atoms to complete their octets

A covalent bond occurs when

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18

Determines its chemical reactivity

An atom's outermost electron shell

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19

Organelles

Prokaryotic cells lack:

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20

Hydrophilic

Phospholipids, which form the cell membrane, assemble spontaneously into bilayers driven by the attraction of their "tail" portions to each other and of their "head" portions to each other. The "head" portions are:

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21

Lysosome

Which organelle is responsible for degrading waste within the cell?

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22

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum

In which organelle are lipids synthesized and modified within the eukaryotic cell?

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23

Artificial selection

John has two birds: one pale-yellow and one pale blue. He wants another pretty bird that will be bright green. Instead of breeding his two birds, he breeds his pale-yellow bird with his friend's bright blue one. In doing so, this is an example of

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24

Functional groups

Organic molecules have a carbon backbone and _____ such as -OH and -NH2 that affect their chemical properties

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25

Triglycerides

What is the name of molecules composed of a glycerol and three fatty acid tails?

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26

Glycogen forming glucose molecules

Which of the following is an example of a hydrolytic reaction?

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27

Protein and RNA

Ribosomes are made up of:

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28

Natural selection

Richard is an avid gardener who spends a lot of time caring for the plants in his garden. To minimize damage from pests from his garden, Richard uses a pesticide spray. At first the spray is very effective and kills off most of the insects that he sees on his vegetable plants. However, after a few years of using the same pesticide he notices that some insects are surviving and continuing to eat his plants. This selection for herbicide resistance in the insects is an example of

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29

Monomers are joined to become a polymer; removed

In a dehydration reaction, ________. In order for this to occur water is ________.

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30

Fructose- a polysaccharide

Select the INCORRECT association

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31

Cellulose

The main structural component of a plant cell wall is

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32

Phosphodiester bonds

The types of bonds found in nucleic acids are:

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33

Replication

Complementary base pairing is most important for which of the following biological processes involving DNA?

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34

Thymine

The nitrogenous base that is only found in DNA and not in RNA is:

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35

34%

A DNA molecule is estimated to contain 32% thymine as part of total pyrimidines. The percentage of total nucleotides in the DNA that contain guanine is?

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36

Nucleic acid

ATP is a molecule used for energy transport inside the cell. The components of it are a nitrogen containing base, a pentose sugar and three phosphate groups. Given this structure it is a(n)

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37

Primary

Denaturation disrupts the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins. However, denaturation is not strong enough to disrupt what interaction that is relevant to protein structure?

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38

Glycine

Which amino acid can exist in both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment?

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39

Produce numerous channels for continuous flow of water from cells to cells

Which of the following is NOT a possible function of the extracellular matrix in animal cells?

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40

Cellulose

Which of the following is not a type of intracellular protein?

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41

Gap junctions

Which is the most common type of intercellular junction between cells of the heart?

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42

The windpipe

Which of the following human cells would contain cilia?

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43

Fluids may leak out past the barrier the junction would create

Without tight junctions in certain tissues

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44

Oxygen

Which of the following is not a product of cellular respiration?

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45

During the citric acid cycle

Where is CO2 being released in aerobic (in presence of oxygen) cellular respiration?

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46

Mitochondria

What harvests energy from food molecules to make ATP?

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47

O2

Alcohol is a waste product produced by yeast in the presence of sugar and the absence of ______.

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48

Gain of electrons; loss of electrons

In a redox reaction, reduction means ___________, and oxidation means ___________.

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49

Pyruvate

A product of glycolysis is

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50

Cytoplasm

Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?

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51

Wine, beer, and bread with alcohol fermentation

The products of fermentation depend on the type of organism carrying out the process. Yeasts are used to produce

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52

Potential

Water behind a dam has a certain amount of stored energy that can be released as the water falls over the top of the dam. It may be enough energy to turn a mill wheel or an electricity-generating turbine. Choose the term that best describes the type of energy stored in the water at the top of the dam

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53

A highly disordered form of energy

Heat is classified as ___________.

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54

Lowering the energy needed for the reaction to proceed

Enzymes are able to speed up the rate of a reaction by

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55

Kinetic energy is energy of motion

Which energy association is correct?

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56

Water + Carbon dioxide + Energy = Sugar + Oxygen

Which of the following best describes the chemical equation for photosynthesis?

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57

Blue and red

Chlorophylls absorb light in which colors of the visible range?

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58

It is a waste product

Identify the role of oxygen in photosynthesis

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59

Green light is the wavelength of light that is reflected instead of absorbed by the chloroplasts.

How do we know green light is not absorbed by chlorophyll?

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60

The synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide

During the Calvin cycle, plants use energy from ATP and NADPH to drive __________.

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61

It loses a phosphate group and is converted to ADP

What happens to the ATP molecule after it has been used to do work?

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62

Granum

A stack of thylakoids is called a

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63

Oxygen

Which of the following is a byproduct of photosynthesis that is used during cellular respiration?

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64

Thylakoid space

The innermost compartment of a chloroplast formed by the interconnected thylakoids is the

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65

ATP and NADPH

The light reactions act much as a battery to power the reactions of the Calvin cycle. This energy is stored as

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66

CO2 fixation, CO2 reduction, and RuBP regeneration

The three stages of the Calvin cycle reactions are

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67

Chlorophyll a

The reaction center of photosystem I consists of what type of molecule?

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68

Nucleus

Which of the following structures would NOT be seen in a prokaryotic cell?

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69

Mitochondrion - cell respiration

Which of the following is a CORRECT matching of an organelle and its function?

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70

Plasma membrane - provides strength to plant cell walls

Identify the organelle - function pairing that is INCORRECT

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71

FAD

Name the electron carrier that functions only in the Citric Acid Cycle

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72

They are specialized

All of the following are characteristics of cancer except?

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73

G1, G2, and Mitotic (M phase)

The three checkpoints of the cell cycle are found in?

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74

Programmed cell death leading to the destruction of the cell

What happens during apoptosis

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75

Binary fission

The reproduction of bacteria cells is called

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76

Metaphase

During which phase of mitosis are the spindle fibers on either side of the chromosome extended out to opposite poles, which allow the chromosomes to align up at the equatorial plate?

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77

Anaphase I of meiosis I

Which of the following phases results in separation of homologous chromosomes?

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78

Cause an organism to grow

Which of the following is not a function of meiosis?

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79

The mitotic phase

Eukaryotic somatic cells alternate in a cycle between cell division and other cell activities. The cell division portion of the cycle is called:

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80

18

After S phase, a cell containing 18 sister chromatids divides by mitosis, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?

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81

Homologues separate and are pulled to opposite poles

Which of these does not occur during prophase I of meiosis?

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82

the point of DNA exchange between paired homologous chromosomes during meiosis I

Evidence of crossing over can often be seen under the light microscope as a structure called a chiasmata, which is _______.

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83

23 pairs of chromosomes

The human genome comprises:

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84

Homologous; Sex

Chromosomes that occur in pairs and code for the same traits are called _____________ chromosomes; these do not include the __________________ chromosomes which code for gender.

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85

Crossing over

Homologous chromosomes pair along their length during prophase I of meiosis. While two homologues are paired, genetic exchange will occur between them in a process called ________.

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86

Synapsis of homologous chromosomes

Which of the following does not occur twice during meiosis?

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87

12.5%

In rabbits, the homozygous CC is normal, Cc results in deformed legs, and cc results in very short legs. The genotype BB produces black fur, Bb brown fur, and bb white fur. If a cross is made between brown rabbits with deformed legs and black rabbits with deformed legs, what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have short legs and black fur?

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88

polygenic inheritance

Skin color is coded for by several different genes which results in a range of skin colors from very dark to very light. This is an example of

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89

50%

In voles, gray hair (H) is dominant to brown hair (h). Short claws (C) are dominant to long claws (c). What is the probability that the offspring of the cross HhCc × HHcc will have gray hair and long claws?

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90

recessive trait

In a one-trait test cross, the phenotype that disappears in the F1 generation is the

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91

9:3:3:1

In a dihybrid cross where both parents are heterozygous, the phenotypic ratio is

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92

multiple alleles and codominance

The ABO blood type system in humans is an example of:

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93

incomplete dominance; codominance

If a white flower is crossed with a red flower and the offspring is pink, this would be an example of ___________. However, if the offspring had red and white spots this would be an example of ___________

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94

Sickle cell anemia

Which of the following is not a sex-linked genetic disorder?

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95

1/2

In peas, tall plants are dominant to short plants. A heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous recessive plant. What fraction of the offspring would you expect to have the short phenotype?

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96

Her father must be colorblind

Red-green colorblindness is a recessive X-linked trait. If a female is red-green colorblind, which of the following is TRUE?

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97

This is an example of a multiple allele trait and an individual can have up to 3 different alleles

Which of the following is NOT true about blood types?

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98

a point mutation that does not change the amino acid encoded within the gene.

A silent mutation is more likely to occur as a result of

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99

DNA repair enzymes often repair errors

Mutations are uncommon because

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100

silent mutation

Which of the following is not a type of chromosomal mutation?

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