CD230 Quiz Terms

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Communication disorder

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110 Terms

1

Communication disorder

any articulation, language, voice, resonance, cognitive, or hearing disorder that interferes with understanding or conveying a person's wants thoughts, feelings, or knowledge

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modalities

any sensory avenue through which information may be received, that is auditory, visual, tactile, taste, and olfactory

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3

speech-language pathologist

a professional who is specifically trained to identify, evaluate, treat, and prevent speech, language, cognitive, and swallowing disorders

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audiologist

a professional who is specifically trained to identify, evaluate, treat, and prevent hearing disorders

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context

  1. the circumstances or events that form the environment within which something exists or takes place

  2. the words, phrases, or narrative that come before and after a particulate word or phrase in speech

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disorder

any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function that interferes with normal activities

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quality of life

a measure of a person’s ability to cope successfully with full range of challenges encountered in daily living

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disability

any restriction or lack of ability to perform within the range considered normal for a human being

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9

congenital disorder

a disorder that is present at birth

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acquired disorder

a disorder that begins after an individual has developed normal communication abilities such as hearing loss or brain injury

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etiology

the cause of an occurance

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functional disorder

a problem or impairment with no known anatomical, physiological, or neurological basis

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13

organic disorder

a problem or impairment with a known anatomical, physiological, or neurological basis

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areas of communication

language, articulation, voice, fluency, and hearing

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15

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)

the professional organization that represents SLPs and AUDs and sets standards for their education, training, and certification

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National Student Speech-Language-Hearing Association (NSSLHA)

the ASHA recognized national organization for undergraduate and graduate students interested in becoming SLPs and AUDs

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evident-based practice

the integration of a) external scientific [research] b) clinical expertise/expert opinion, and c) client/patient/caregiver perspectives for providing high quality services reflecting the interests, values, needs, and choices of the individuals served

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processes of speech

innervation, respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation

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structures of innervation

the central nervous system made up of the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord; and the peripheral nervous system made up of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves

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structures of respiration

oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, pharynx, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm

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structures of phonation

larynx

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structures of resonation

oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx

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structures of articulation

tongue, teeth, lips, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, mandible, glottis

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lobes of the brain

temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital

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structures of auditory comprehension

primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus) and Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe

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26

language processing

a complex phenomenon of the brain that can involve auditory, visual, and tactile information processing as well as cognition in the right hemisphere that involves attention, memory, reasoning, judgement, decision making, and problem solving. Plan for output is then sent to the Broca’s area in the premotor cortex of the left hemisphere which controls the movements of the articulators.

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behavioral theory

maintains that speech and language is a set of verbal behaviors learned by operant conditioning is which a desired behavior is reinforced

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nativistic theory

emphasizes the acquisition of language as an innate, physiologically determined, and genetically transmitted phenomenon. Believes we are prewired for language acquisition.

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semantic-cognitive theory

emphasizes the interrelationship between cognitive abilities. Children demonstrate certain cognitive abilities as the corresponding language behavior emerges.

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30

English language learner

a child that is learning English after a “home” language has already been established

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31

mean length of utterance (MLU)

the average number of morphemes in a single utterance

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cognitive development

the progressive growth of perception, memory, imagination, judgment and reasoning

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phonetics

the study of the production of speech sounds and the symbols that represent each sound

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phoneme

the shortest unit of sound that can be recognized as being distinct from other sounds

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articulation disorder

the incorrect production of speech sounds often due to inaccurate placement of the tongue

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36

phonological disorder

errors of phonemes that form patterns in which a child simplifies individual sounds or sound combinations

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37

intelligible

the degree or percentage with which an utterance is understood by the average listener

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38

motor speech disorders

impaired intelligibility caused by a neurological impairment that affects motor planning or strength of articulators

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39

childhood apraxia of speech

a developmental motor speech disorder that affects planning, sequencing, coordinating, and initiating movement of the articulators. this interferes with articulation or prosody. not caused by weakness

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40

Individual education plan

a legal contract that tells the plan that will be used to ensure that a child with an impairment or disability receives specialized instruction.

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41

dysarthria

motor speech disorders caused by paresis (weakness) or paralysis (complete loss of movement as a result of central or periphreal nervous system damage. may affect respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation, and prosody

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42

language comprehension

the process by which the listener infers meaning of the auditory message based on the context, long-term memory, and general knowledge

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43

expressive language

the words, grammatical structures, and meanings that a person uses verbally

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44

language disorder

an impairment that affects comprehension and/or expression of wants/needs, thoughts, feelings, or knowledge through verbal, written or gestural means.

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45

areas of language

form (phonology morphology, and syntax), context (semantics), and use (pragmatics)

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morphology

the rules of the structure (form) of words

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47

morphemes

the smallest unit of language that has meaning. Examples would be root words, prefixes, or suffixes

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phonology

the rules for how speech sounds can be used to make words

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49

sematics

the study of the meaning in language

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50

pragmatics

how language is used in social situations

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51

syntax

the rules that govern the sequences, combinations, and functions of words in a sentence

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52

literacy

the ability to communicate through written language, both reading and writing

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orthography

the learning of printing and writing, and the study of spelling and how letters combine to form words

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54

phonological awareness

recognition and understanding of sound-letter associations

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scaffolding

supports that clinicians give to clients to help them achieve competence in an activity

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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder

a broad syndrome who demonstrate three primary problems: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity

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auditory processing

the processing of auditory information in the central nervous system and what the brain does with the information heard

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58

comorbidity

the presence of two or more conditions or disorders

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adaptive behavior

the ability to act as independently and responsibly as other people of the same age

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60

autism spectrum disorders

a lifelong behavioral syndrome that appears before 3 years of age with children having decreased or absent interest in social interactions, severely impaired communication skills, and repetitive stereotyped movements, combined with restricted interests that are often obsessive

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developmental disabilities

a disability that originates before 18 and is characterized by significant deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior

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functional communication

forms of behavior that express wants, needs, feelings, thoughts, knowledge, and preferences that others can understand

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63

traumatic brain injury

an acquired injury of the brain by an external force resulting in a disability

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degenerative

any condition that causes a progressive deterioration of tissues, structures or functions over time

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concussion

a mild TBI caused by a violent shaking or striking that skull that may or may not cause a loss of consciousness

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World Health Organization

an agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health

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stuttering

a disturbance in the normal flow of speech characterized by repetitions, prolongations, or interjections

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cluttering

speech that is abnormally fast with omissions of sounds or syllables of words, abnormal patterns of pausing and phrasing, and bursts of speech that may be unintelligible

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secondary stuttering behaviors

extra sounds, facial or body movements that a person who stutters uses during movements of stuttering

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fluency

the effortless flow of speech

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aphonia

a complete loss of voice

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intensity

the force that opens and closed the vocal folds. the perception of intensity is loudness

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frequency

the highness or lowness of the voice, the perception of frequent is pitch

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quality

audible features of the voice that distinguish it from another voice with both are the same pitch and loudness

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vocal abuse

harmful behaviors that are damaging to the vocal folds, and the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles and tissues

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teratogen

any substance of agent that interferes with prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormalities in a fetus.

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velopharyngeal insufficiency

an anatomical or structural difference that prevents adequate velopharyngeal closure, including a short velum

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78

hypernasality

a resonance disorder that occurs when oral consonants and vowels enter the nasal cavity because of clefts of the hard or soft palates or weakness of the soft palate, which causes a person to sound like he is “talking through his nose”

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hyponasality

lack of normal resonance for the three English phonemes /m/, /n/, and /ng/ caused by partial or complete obstruction in the nasal tract

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80

cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

a disruption of blood supply to the brain caused by an occluded (blocked) artery or an artery that has ruptured

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ischemic stroke

a partial or complete blockage of the cerebral artery, causing decreased blood supply to brain tissue

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hemorrhagic stoke

a stroke caused by rupturing of a blood vessel that results in blood leaking or flowing into the brain tissue, damaging of killing neurons, axons, dendrites, and synapses

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83

aphasia

an impairments in language processing that may affect any or all output modalities (auditory, visual, tactile) and any or all output modalities (speaking, writing, and gesturing)

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84

anomia

implied ability to retrieve (remember) names of people, places, and objects, as well as all classes or words (ex: verbs, adjectives)

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85

Broca’s aphasia

a non-fluent aphasia characterized by argammatic language with omissions of articles, conjunctions, prepositions, plurals, possessive, and verb morphemes and auxiliary verbs, it is often limited to high frequency words with speech sounding more telegraphic

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86

Wernicke’s aphasia

a fluent aphasia characterized by impaired auditory comprehension and expression, and by impaired reading and writing

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87

global aphasia

a severe-to-profound aphasia characterized by severely impaired receptive and expressive language in all input and all output modalities, with motor speech disorders of apraxia, dysarthria, or both

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88

closed head injury

brain injury resulting from a direct blow to the head, or the moving head being abruptly stopped which may cause widespread damage such as tearing, and shearing of axons and dendrites

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open head injury

brain injury resulting from the skill and brain being penetrated either by severe impact or by projectiles (bullets, fragments of glass, shrapnel)

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90

executive functions

refers to the ability to anticipate needs, set goals, plan and implement strategies as well as inhibit thoughts or action

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dementia

a progressive neurological disease that causes intellectual, cognitive, and personality deterioration that is more severe than what would occur through normal aging

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premorbid

the wellness or functioning of a patient before a significant illness or an injury

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automatic speech

over-learned sequences of words that can recited without much conscious thought

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plateau

a patient’s general leveling uff of improvement in rehabilitation, after which gains are slower and less easily documented

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95

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing that occurs in any of the four phases of the swallow

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96

four phases of swallowing

oral preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, esophageal

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97

aspiration

a term referencing material that penetrates the larynx and goes BELOW the true vocal folds

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98

Vidoflouroscopy swallow study (VFSS)

an x-ray video that examines the movement of the bolus from the mouth to the stomach

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99

tympanic membrane

a thin semitransparent membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear, and transmits sound vibrations into the middle ear

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100

ossicular chain

the three small bones of the middle ear named after their basic shapes, the malleus, incus, and stapes

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