World History Chapter 25

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Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial Revolution

100 Terms

1

Industrial Revolution

The greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s

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2

Enclosure Acts

a series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.

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3

Jethro Tull

Invented the Seed Drill

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4

Seed Drill

created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields

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5

Crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

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6

Three-field system

System of agricultural cultivation by the 9th century in western Europe; included one-third in spring grains, one-third fallow. (Farmers could grow crops on two thirds of their land, not half)

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7

Robert Bakewell

used selective breeding to produce larger and healthier farm animals

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8

Selective Breeding

The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation

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9

Industrialization

The development of industries for the machine production of goods.

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10

Factors of production

Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services

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11

John Kay

Invented the flying shuttle

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12

Flying shuttle

was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand

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13

James Hargreaves

invented the spinning jenny

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14

Spinning Jenny

A machine that could spin eight threads at once

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15

Richard Arkwright

Invented the water frame

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16

Water frame

1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms

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17

Samuel Crompton

spinning mule

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18

Spinning mule

In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to create a machine which produced a thread which was stronger, finer and more consistent

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19

Edmund Cartwright

invented the power loom

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20

Power loom

a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles

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21

Factories

place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods

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22

Eli Whitney

Invented the cotton gin

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23

Cotton gin

A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

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24

Steam engine

A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.

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25

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819); went to the University of Glasgow

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26

Matthew Boulton

entrepreneur who hired Watt to build better engines

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27

Entrepreneur

A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.

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28

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

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29

The Clermont

the first full-sized commercial steamboat, invented by Robert Fulton. It sailed up and down the Hudson River

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30

John McAdam

developed method of building better roads by laying stones on each other

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31

Turnpikes

Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them

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32

Richard Trevithick

English engineer who built the first railway locomotive (1771-1833)

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33

George Stephenson

English railway pioneer who built the first passenger railway in 1825 (1781-1848)

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34

Liverpool-Manchester Railroad

this was the first important railroad, linking the factory city of Manchester to the port city of Liverpool

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35

Urbanization

An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

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36

Birmingham and Sheffield

Two cities that became iron-smelting centers for Britain

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37

Leeds and Manchester

Two cities that dominated textile manufacturing in England

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38

Liverpool and Manchester

Two cities that formed the center of Britain's bustling cotton industry

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39

Elizabeth Gaskell

Wrote novels that showed smpathy for the working class

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40

Mary Barton (Novel)

a novel by Elizabeth Gaskell, dealt with the difficulties of being in the Victorian lower class

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41

How many years did coal mining in during the Industrial Revolution take off your life?

10 years

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42

Middle class

A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers

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43

Upper middle class

Factory managers, doctors, gov employees, lawyers, managers and others were considered what "class"?

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44

lower middle class

Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like; by 1900, this group comprised about 20 percent of Britain's population.

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45

Luddites

Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.

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46

Alexis de Tocqueville

French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859)

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47

The Factory Act of 1819

restricted working age and hours; offered protection for children in the work place

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48

Irwell River

River in Manchester poisoned by textiles & dyes

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49

Samuel Slater

He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.

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50

Moses Brown

opened the first factory in the United States to house Slater's machines in Pawtucket, Rhode Island

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51

Francis Cabot Lowell

American industrialist who developed the Lowell system, a mill system that included looms that could both weave thread and spin cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill in Waltham (Lowell), Massachusetts

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52

Electric lightbulb

Thomas Edison's most important invention

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53

Stock

A share of ownership in a corporation.

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54

Corporation

A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts

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55

Standard Oil corporation

A monopoly on oil, created by John D. Rockefeller in 1870. By 1890, the company owned 90% of the US oil market.

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56

Carnegie Steel Company

Corporation under the leadership of Andrew Carnegie that came to dominate the American steel industry.

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57

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

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58

Andrew Carnegie

A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

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59

William Cockerill

founded a textile factory in Belgium bringing industrialization to continental Europe

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60

Ruhr Valley

coal-rich industrial region of Germany

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61

Bohemia

a historical area and former kingdom in the Czech Republic, developed a spinning industry in the 1800s

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62

Catalonia

The Mediterranean coastal region in Spain; developed a massive cotton industry in the 1800s

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63

Northern Italy

Developed a mechanized textile production that specialized in silk spinning

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64

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

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65

Laissez-faire

Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.

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66

Adam Smith

Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.

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67

Three Natural Laws of Economics

law of self interest, law of competition, law of supply and demand

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68

Thomas Malthus

an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834). Wrote An Essay On the Principle of Population

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69

David Ricardo

(1772-1823)-English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth. Wrote Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

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70

Capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership of capital

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71

An Essay on the Principle of Population

book: Thomas Malthus; argued that pop. tended to increase more rapidly than food supply

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72

Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

book by Ricardo

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73

Jeremy Bentham

(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.

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74

Utilitarianism

idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

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75

John Stuart Mill

Arguably the most famous English philosopher and politician of the 1800s. Champion of liberty over unlimited state control. Also famous for adding falsification as a key component of the scientific method.

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76

Robert Owen

(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed

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77

Charles Fourier

(1772-1837)-A leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.

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78

Count of Saint-Simon

Government should be directed by scientists, not politicians, who understood the operation of the modern industrial economy. Government should serve interests of the people. Wrote The New Christianity

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79

Socialism

A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.

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80

Karl Marx

1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.

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81

Communist Manifesto

A socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1848) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views.

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82

Bourgeoisie

the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

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83

Proletariat

Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production

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84

Communism

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

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85

Lenin, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro

The Communist Manifesto and Marxism inspired revolutionaries such as Russia's.........., China's..........., and Cuba's............

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86

Unions

An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.

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87

Strike

Nonviolent refusal to continue to work until a problem is resolved.

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88

Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800

Outlawed unions and strikes, they were repealed in 1824

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89

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

a national organization of labor unions founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers

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90

Factory Act of 1833

An act that limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen years of age to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen years of age to twelve hours.

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91

The Mines Act of 1842

prevented women and children from working underground

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92

The Ten Hours Act of 1847

limited the workday to 10 hours for women a and children who worked in factories

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93

National Child Labor Committee

a progressive organization formed in 1904 to promote laws restricting or banning child labor

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94

William Wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

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95

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

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96

Council for Women 1888

In light of the abolition of slavery women began to advocate for their own rights forming the........ which composed of women activists

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97

Horace Mann

Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education; "Father of the public school system"; a prominent proponent of public school reform, & set the standard for public schools throughout the nation; lengthened academic year; pro training & higher salaries to teachers

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98

Alexis de Tocqueville

He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.

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99

Friedrich Engels

Another German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto; German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx.

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100

Walter Crane

was one of the earliest and the most influential designers of children's picture books; illustrator who spoke on design

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