psych2070 midterm 2

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self-concept

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Psychology

119 Terms

1

self-concept

overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes

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2

self-schemas

organized body of knowledge about ourselves that includes our attitudes, likes and dislikes, and personality traits

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3

self-concept clarity

extent to which knowledge about self is stable and clearly and consistetly defined

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4

introspection

look inward and examine "inside information" that you have about your thoughts, feelings, and motives

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5

self-awareness theory

when we are focused on ourselves, we evealuate and compare current behaviour against internal standards and values

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6

why is self-focus a way of staying out of trouble/ reminding you of right and wrong

more likely to follow moral standards when self-awaren

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7

causal theories

theories about what influences feelings and behaviour ad often uses theories to help explain why they feel the way they do

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8

self-perception theory

attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behvaiour and the situaton when it occurs

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9

intrinsic motivation

desire to engage in an activiy becase you enjoy it or find it interesting

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10

extrinsic motivation

external rewards or pressures

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11

over justifiction effect

occurs when people view their behaviour as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestmate the extent to which their behaviour was caused by intrinsic reasons

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12

task contingent rewards

people get them only for performing a task, regardless of how well the do it

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13

performance contingent rewards

reward depends on how well people perfom task

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14

looking-glass self

idea that we see ourselves through the eyes of other people, either present or imagined, and incorporate their views into our self-concept

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15

social comparison theory

people learn about their own abilities and attitudes by comparing themselves with other people

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16

self-control

ability to subdue immediate desires to achieve long-term goals

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17

thought supression

avoid temptation by trying not to think of them, pushing thoughts out of our minds

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18

implementation intetions

making specific plans about where, when, and how we will fulfill a goal and avoid temptations

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19

what is part of the reason for comparison

constructing accurate image of ourse

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20

downward social comparison

comparing yourself with people who are worse than you in a particular trait or ability

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21

upward social comparison

comparing ourselves to someone who is better than we are in a particular trait or ab

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22

sociometer

psychological mechanism that monitors environment for cues about extent to which we are accepted or rejected by others

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23

self-enhancement

holding unrealistically positive views of ourselves to boost self-esteem

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24

self-effacement

tendency to hold negative view of oneself

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25

self-verification theory

need to seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether positve or negative

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26

high self-concept theory

self-schemas held with certainty and percieved to be consistent and stable

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27

low self-concept clarity

not having firm knowledge of who we are

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28

how to gain self-knowledge

introspection, observing our own behaviour, social interaction, comparing ourselves with others

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29

dispositional (trait) self control

relatively stable amount of self-control

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30

stable self control

variable amount of self control

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31

self-regulatory resource model

argues that self control is a limited resource susceptible to ego depletion

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32

self-esteem

how we feel about ourselves

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33

explicit self-esteem

influenced by self-presentation concerns

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34

implicit self-esteem

arguably more resistant to self-presentation concerns, and thought to better reflect unconscious feelings toward ourselves

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35

secure self esteem

high explicit and high implicit

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36

defensive self esteem

high explicit and low implicit

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37

narcissism related to what type of self esteem?

defensive self estee,

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38

self-verification

seek verification and confirmation on their sense of self, regardless of whether their self-views are positive or negative

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39

attitudes

evaluations of people, objects, or ideas`

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40

affective component

consisting of emotional reactions toward the attitude

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41

cognitive component

consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object

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42

behavioural component

consisting of actions or observable behaviour toward the attitude object

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43

affectively based attitude

attitude rooted in more emotions and feelings than on an objective appraisal of pluses and minuses

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44

cognitively based attitude

person's evaluation is based primarily on beleifs about propertie of an attitude object

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45

self-perception theory

under certain circumstances people don't know how they feel until they see how they behave

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46

explicit attitudes

consciously endorse and can easily report, what we think of as our evaluations

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47

implicit attitudes

involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious evaluations

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48

theory of planned behaviour

when and how attitudes predict intetional, deliberate

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49

what is the best predictor of behaviour?

intention

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50

how is intention determined?

attitudes toward specific behaviour, subjective norms, and percieved behavioural co

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51

subjective norms

beliefs about how people they care about will view behaviour in question

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52

yale attitude approach

source of communication, communication itself, nature of the audience

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53

elaboration likelihood model

specifies when people will be influenced by what speech says and when they will be influenced by more superficial chracteristics

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54

central route to persuasion

people elaborate on what they hear, carefully thinking about

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55

peripheral route to persuasion

people not swayed by logic of arguments and instead persuaded of message makes it seem reasonable

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56

fear-arousing communication

getting people's attention by scaring them

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57

subliminal messages

words or pictures that are not conscously percieved but that supposedly influence people's judgment, attitudes, and behaviour

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58

attitude innoculaton

the process of making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their postition

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59

theory of cognitive dissonance

discomfort we experience when our behaviour is at odds with our attitudes or when we hold attitudes that coflict with one another

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60

how to reduce dissonance

change behav

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61

post-decision dissonance

experience dissonance after making a decision

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62

justification of effort

tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain

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63

external justification

important not to cause pain or embarass people you, things outside ourself

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64

internal justification

try to reduce dissonance by changing something about ourselves

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65

counter attitudinal behaviour

occurs when we state an opinion or attitude that runs counter to our private belief or attitude

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66

insufficient punishment

threat is mild so it doesn't produce superabundance of justifications

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67

hypocrisy induction

making people aware of dissonance between what they are doing and what they are preaching

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68

self-affirmation theory

people can reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self-esteem by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelate to the threat

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69

implicit association test (IAT)

relies on cognitive interference form suppressing "incorrect" responses

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70

name letter task

people tend to favour letters in their name over other letters in the alphabet can predict: self-esteem, depression, romantic satisfaction and longevity

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71

persuasive communication

some medium of communication that advocates a particular point of view

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72

counter attitudinal advocacy

occurs when we express an opinion or attitude that counters our private beliefs of feelings

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73

justifying bad deeds

when we hurt someone we sometimes come to dislike or hate that person more

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74

conformity

change in behaviour as a result of the real or imagined influence of other people

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75

informational social influence

influence of other people leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behaviour

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76

private acceptance

people conform to the behaviours of others because they genuinely believe these other people are correct

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77

public compliance

person conforms publicly without necessarily believing in what the group is saying or doing

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78

normative social influence

conform so we will be liked and accepted by other people

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79

social norms

groups have certain expectations about how the group members should behave

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80

social impact theory

likelihood you respond to social influence from other people depends on strength, immediacy, numbe

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81

strength

how important is the group to you?

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82

immediacy

how close is group to you in space and time during influence attempt?

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83

number

how many people in the group?

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84

what are the two main reasons people conform?

informational and normative social influence

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85

compliance

change in behaviour is response to direct request from another person

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86

door-in-the-face technique

first request is purposely large followed by smaller request

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87

foot-in-the-door technique

small request followed by larger one

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88

reciprocity norm

when someone does something nice for you, feeling obligated to do something nice for them

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89

lowball

getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before hidden costs revealed

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90

obedience

conformity in response to commands of authority figure

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91

idiosyncrasy credits

earned every time you conform with group's expectation spent every time you deviate from norm or expectation

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92

minority influence

occurs when minority of group members influences behaviour or beliefs of majority

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93

group

collection of three or more people who interact with one another and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another

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94

social roles

shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave

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95

group cohesiveness

qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them

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96

social faciliation

tendency for people to do better on simple tasks but worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated

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97

3 theories to explain role of arousal in social facilitation

other people cause us to become alert and vigilant make us apprehensive about how we're being evaluated distract us from the task at hand

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98

evaluation apprehension

concern about being judged

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99

social loafing

tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated

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100

relational interdependece

tendency to focus on and care about personal relationships with others

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