Chapter 33-34: alterations in the reproductive system

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delayed puberty

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101 Terms

1

delayed puberty

women = 13 or 14 with no period

boys are much older when this is diagnosed

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2

precocious puberty

puberty starting earlier than supposed to

women get affected first

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3

complex partial PP

completely secondary reasons for precocious puberty

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4

incomplete partial PP

certain things will start to develop but not everything

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5

isosexual mixed PP

same

appropriate for at birth gender

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6

heterosexual mixed PP

different

secondary characteristics not aligning with their at birth gender

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7

turner’s syndrome

XO

most tolerable out of all bc you can live with it

web necked appearances

evidence is no Barr body on nucleus on a female

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8

Barr Body

deactivated X chromosomes found in females on the nucleus of the cells

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9

Trisomy X

XXX

female, can go unnoticed

2 different barr bodies

can’t get pregnant

comes from both parents

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10

Klinefelter’s Syndrome

XXY = males

more common now

breast development, small gonads, and shoulder are sloped

found with barr body in a male

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11

Jacob’s syndrome

XYY = males

very small IQ

vert aggressive

no barr bodies

dad’s fault

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12

an X chromosome to fall back on

what do males not have?

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13

y chromosomes

exclusive to males

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14

X chromosome

what chromosome is the default route?

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15

aneuploid

no normal number of chromosomes

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16

monosomy

lost one chromosome (46)

can cause damage to development

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17

intersex

gonads get stuck on between F or M

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18

androgen insensitivity syndrome

do not respond to testosterone

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19

adrenal gland

where do we make testosterone

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20

dysmenorrhea

painful periods

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21

primary dysmenorrhea

painful periods with NO underlying reasons

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22

secondary dysmenorrhea

a reason to why you should have painful periods

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23

amenorrhea

absence of periods

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24

primary amenorrhea

no menarche after 13

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25

secondary amenorrhea

started and then stopped

can be due to months gaps at a time

pregnancy

hormonal dysregulation

PCOS

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26

abnormal uterine bleeding

bleeding caused by abnormal uterine bleeding

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27

polycystic ovarian syndrome

cause by secondary amenorrhea

can’t release egg

acne, weight gain, facial hair

have a link to insulin resistance

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28

past ovulation

what is the luteal phase of cycle

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29

PMS

premenstrual syndrome

cramping and bloating

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30

PMDD

premenstrual dystopic disorder

symptomatic (moody)

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31

pelvic inflammatory disease

results of untreated STIs

most likely gonorrhea and chlamydia

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32

salpingitis

inflammation in the fallopian tubes

ectopic pregnancy can happen

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33

oophoritis

inflammation of ovaries

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34

vaginosis

inflammation of the vaginal canal

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35

cervicitis

inflammation of cervix

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36

vulvitis

inflammation of vulva

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37

bartholinitis

inflammation in the gland that secretes fluid during intercourse

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38

child birth

what causes pelvic relaxation disorders?

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39

stress incontinence

what does pelvic relaxation disorders result in?

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40

vaginal prolapse

vagina goes outside of the body

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41

cystocele

bladder prolapse

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42

urethrocele

urethra prolapse

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43

rectocele

rectal prolapse

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44

enterocele

large intestine prolapse

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45

uterine prolapse

uterus prolapse

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46

pessary and vaginal mesh

what are treatments for pelvic relaxation disorders?

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47

pessary

put in like a diaphragm to keep organs in place

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48

vaginal mesh

put mesh in surgically to keep organs in place

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49

benign ovarian cysts

follicular cysts

corpus luteum cysts

dermoid cysts

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50

follicular cysts

cyst within the follicles

has an egg

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51

corpus luteum cysts

corpus ludium

egg already has been released

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52

dermoid cysts

from tissues that make the ovaries

painful and unpleasant

possible for them to rupture

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53

dermoid cysts are the most common

which benign ovarian cyst is the most common?

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54

ovarian torsion

what can result due to benign ovarian cysts?

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55

ovaries get twisted causing the nerve endings to get cut off

what is ovarian torsion?

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56

endometrial polyps

inner lining of the uterus forms a polyp

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57

leiomyomas

a group of benign smooth muscle tumors

These tumors are of monoclonal origin which arises from the smooth muscle of the uterus.

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58

adenomyosis

endometrial lining proliferation, can cause it to go back

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59

endometriosis

pieces of endometrial tissue scatters everywhere within the body

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60

dyschezia

symptom of endometriosis

abnormally painful poops

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61

very responsive to hormone levels

why do people with endometriosis have very painful periods?

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62

pregnancy

what is a “treatment” for endometriosis?

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63

cervical cancer

most common

hpv triggers

can be asymptomatic for a very long time

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64

ovarian cancer

once signs and symptoms show it’s too late but it is possible to just remove the ovaries

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65

vaginismus

spasm of the vagina which makes intercourse different

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66

anorgasmia

inability of having orgasms

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67

dyspareunia

painful intercourse

can come from lack of interest

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68

both parents

who’s at fault for infertility?

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69

unprotected sex for over a year and the female does not get pregnant

how do you clinically get diagnosed with infertility?

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70

urethritis

which the urethra, becomes inflamed and irritated

causes pain while urinating and an increased urge to urinate.

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71

Urethral stricture

scarring that narrows the tube that carries urine out of your body

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72

phismosis

foreskin doesn’t retract

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73

paraphismosis

foreskin can retract but cannot go back

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74

peyronie disease

physical bend within the shaft

physical therapy can help

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75

priapism

consequence of taking certain drugs

erections that can last for hours

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76

balanoposthitis

inflammation of the whole penis

combo of balanitis and posthitis

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77

balanitis

inflammation of the head

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78

posthitis

inflammation of the shaft

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79

condyloma acuminatum

associated with HPV

can depend on a man

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80

penile cancer

what can condyloma acuminatum cause

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81

penile cancer

rare but treatment can be drastic

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82

varicocele

affects veins and makes them enlarged

looks like a bag of worms when cut open

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83

hydrocele

water accumulating in the scrotum

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84

spermatocele

epididymal cysts

can see many types resolve on their own

usually not threatening

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85

cryptorchidism

testes don’t drop during fetal development

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86

testicular torsion

testes get twisted bc they have shields of tissues

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87

orchitis

inflammation of testes

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88

testicular cancer

obvious lump in testes

can metastasize

can remove testicles if needed

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89

epididymitis

certain STIs can cause this

impede epididymis to collect sperm cells

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90

if too tight, too warm to produce sperm well

why do dr.’s recommend wearing different underwear if a couple is going through infertility?

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91

produce semen

what does the prostate do?

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92

benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlarged prostate

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93

bladder outflow obstructions

what happens if you have an enlarged prostate often?

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94

PSA

prostate specific antigen

can be bound or free

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95

bound psa

attached to molecule

problem, can lead to prostate cancer

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96

free PSA

high levels, no issue

not attached to a molecule

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97

prostatitis

inflammation of prostate

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98

prostate cancer

common

shave tissue around bladder

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99

sexual dysfunction

erectile dysfunction (STI’s)

men cannot get an erection without nitric oxide

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100

nursing homes

where did they fund the largest numbers of STIs?

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