Edexcel A-Level Chemistry Paper 1

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nucleon number

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108 Terms

1

nucleon number

What is another name for the mass number?

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2

proton number

What is another name for the atomic number?

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3

atom of the same element with the same atomic number

and a different number of neutrons

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4

relative to the mass of 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom

How is relative atomic mass measured?

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5

+1

What charge are ions in a mass spectrometer?

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6

m/z (mass / charge)

What unit is given by a mass spectrometer?

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7

organic compound

What type of compound produces an M+1 peak?

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8

carbon-13 is present in small amounts

Why are M+1 peaks seen in mass spectrometry?

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9

s

p

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10

spherical

What shape are s-orbitals?

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11

elongated dumbbells

What shape are p-orbitals?

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12

chromium and copper

Which elements have unusual electronic configurations including 4s1 where 4s2 may be expected?

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13

4s

Which shell fills up first? [3d/4s]

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14

2p

Which shell fills up first? [2p/3s]

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15

orbitals in a subshell receive one electron

then two before moving onto the next subshell

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16

A(g) -> A+(g) + e-

What is the equation for first ionisation energy (IE1)?

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17

A+(g) -> A2+(g) + e-

What is the equation for second ionisation energy (IE2)?

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18

energy needed to remove one mole of the outermost electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms to produce one mole of gaseous ions with a charge of +1

What is the definition of first ionisation energy (IE1)?

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19

group 1

An element has a large jump between IE1 and IE2. What group is the element?

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20

group 3

An element has a large jump between IE3 and IE4. What group is the element in?

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21

orbital

nuclear charge

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22

outermost electron is in an s-orbital

What is an s-block element?

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23

outermost electron is in a p-orbital

What is a p-block element?

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24

outermost electron is in a d-orbital

What is a d-block element?

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25

covalent radius

What is the distance between two covalently bonded nuclei?

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26

van der Waals radius

What is the distance between two non-bonded nuclei?

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27

high melting temperature

good conductivity

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28

there are many forces of attraction

Why do metals have high melting temperatures?

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29

delocalised electrons can carry a charge

Why do metals have good electrical conductivity?

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30

delocalised electrons and cations can pass kinetic energy along the metal

Why do metals have good thermal conductivity?

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31

layers of cations can slide past one another

Why are metals malleable and ductile?

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32

attraction between oppositely charged ions > repulsion between like charged ions

How are ions arranged in an ionic solid?

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33

small

Which ions make stronger ionic bonds? [Large/Small]

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34

negative

What sign is the charge on an anion?

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35

positive

What sign is the charge on a cation?

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36

combined electrostatic forces of attraction among all ions is large

Why do ionic compounds have high melting temperatures?

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37

ions repel when layers slide

Why are ionic compounds brittle?

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38

no delocalised electrons

ions cannot move

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39

ions are mobile and will move to opposite electrodes

Why are ionic liquids good electrical conductors?

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40

lithium nitride (Li3N)

batteries

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41

electrolysis

What is used as evidence for the existence of ions?

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42

end-on

What type of overlap causes sigma bonding?

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43

s-orbitals

p-orbitals

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44

sideways

What type of overlap causes pi bonding?

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45

p-orbitals

Which orbitals can undergo pi bonding?

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46

double or triple

What type of covalent bonds are pi bonds?

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47

ability of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons

What is electronegativity?

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48

up a group

across a period

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49

different electronegativities

What causes covalent bonds to be polar?

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50

electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

What is a discrete (simple) molecule?

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51

empty orbital of one atom overlaps with an orbital containing a lone pair

How is a dative covalent bond formed?

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52

false

lone pair-lone pair repulsion < lone pair-bond pair repulsion [True/False]

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53

true

lone pair-bond pair repulsion > bond pair-bond pair repulsion [True/False]

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54

true

bond pair-bond pair repulsion > lone pair-lone pair repulsion [True/False]

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55

180

What is the bond angle for linear molecules?

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56

120

What is the bond angle for trigonal planar molecules?

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57

109.5

What is the bond angle for tetrahedral molecules?

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58

107

What is the bond angle for triagonal pyramidal molecules?

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59

104.5

What is the bond angle for V-shaped molecules?

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60

90

120

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61

90

What is the bond angle for hexagonal molecules?

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62

dipoles cancel

Why is carbon dioxide not a polar molecule?

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63

dipoles reinforce

What makes a molecule polar?

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64

London forces

What name is given to instantaneous dipole-induced dipole interactions?

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65

van der Waals forces

What is another name for London forces?

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66

shifting electron density

What causes an instantaneous dipole?

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67

atomic number / number of electrons

Strength of London forces increases as ... increases

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68

sometimes attract

sometimes repel

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69

more electronegative than hydrogen

The atom bonded to hydrogen has to be ... to undergo hydrogen bonding

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70

alcohol (OH)

All compounds containing which group can undergo hydrogen bonding?

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71

between a hydrogen and the lone pair of electrons on oxygen

Where is the hydrogen bond in water?

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72

between a hydrogen and the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen

Where is the hydrogen bond in ammonia?

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73

CnH2n+2

What is the general formula of alkanes?

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74

increased significance of London forces

more point of contact

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75

CnH2n+1OH

What is the general formula for alcohols?

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76

alcohols

hydrogen bonding

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77

HF

Which hydrogen halide has the highest boiling temperature?

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78

increases

From HCl -> HBr -> HI boiling temperature... [Increases/decreases]

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79

hydrogen bonding

Why does water have a high boiling temperature?

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80

fewer hydrogen bonds per molecule

Why does HF have a lower boiling temperature than water?

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81

gaps between molecules

Why is ice less dense than water?

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82

particles separated & surrounded by solvent particles

strong force of attraction between solute & solvent

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83

non-polar

what types of molecules are insoluble in water?

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84

like dissolves like

What is the rule of thumb for solvents?

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85

giant metallic lattice

"High melting temperature

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86

giant ionic lattice

"High melting temperatures

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87

giant covalent lattices

What are diamond

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88

sigma bonds

What bonds are present in diamond?

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89

109.5

What is the bond angle in diamond?

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90

high melting temperature

hard

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91

graphite

Which giant covalent lattice is a good solid lubricant?

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92

can only conduct parallel to layers

What is unique about graphite's ability to conduct electricity?

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93

single layer of graphite

What is graphene?

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94

molecules arranged in a regular pattern

Why is solid iodine crystalline?

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95

molecular lattices

What are ice and solid iodine examples of?

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96

only London forces need to be overcome

Why do molecular solids have low melting temperatures?

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97

covalent bonding

Which type of bonding can result in either a giant lattice or a discrete molecule?

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98

oxidation

What is the loss of electrons called?

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99

reduction

What is the gain of electrons called?

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100

it is reduced

What happens to an oxidising agent in a reaction?

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