Biology 1114H Exam 3

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tetrapod

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Biology

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1

tetrapod

animal with four limbs

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three major lineages of living tetrapods

  1. amphibians

  2. mammals

  3. reptiles

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3

amphibia

semi-terrestrial, complete metamorphosis, external fertilization,

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examples of amphibia

frogs, salamanders, caecilians

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causes of rapid decline of amphibia over last 30 years

chytrid fungus, habitat loss, climate change, pollution

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6

amphibian life cycle

metamorphosis

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7

paedomorphosis in amphibia

the axolotl reproduces sexually while still in "larval" form

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paedomorphosis

retains larval or juvenile traits into later life stages

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amniotes

synapomorphy of amniotic egg

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amniotic egg

egg with protective covering that reduces the rate of drying

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examples of amniotes

reptiles (including birds) and egg-laying mammals

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12

Three inner membranes of amniotic egg surround

the embryo, the yolk provided by the mother, and the waste from the embryo

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amnion

membrane that surrounds the embryo

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yolk sac

membrane that surrounds yolk provided by mother

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allantois

membrane that surrounds embryonic waste

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albumen

egg white, cushions developing embryo and provides nutrients

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17

membranes provide ____ and increase ____

mechanical support and surface area for gas exchange

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18

three major lineages of mammals alive today

  1. egg-laying monotremes

  2. pouch-bearing marsupials

  3. placental (eutherians)

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19

eutherians

produce placenta within uterus or oviduct during pregnancy

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characteristics of mammals

hair/fur maid of keratin, mammary glands, endotherm (warm blooded), 4-chambered heart

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monotremes

egg-laying mammals, have hair, produce milk, lack nipples

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examples of monotremes

platypus and echidnas

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marsupials

live young born early that develop in marsupium, nipples provide milk, placenta provides nutrients in utero

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examples of marsupials

opossums, kangaroos, koalas

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placental mammals

eutherians, complete embyronic development attached to placenta

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placenta

organ combining maternal and embryonic tissues

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viviparity

development of young inside

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28

evolutionary advantages of viviparity and placenta

  1. offspring develop at more constant temperature

  2. Offspring are protected

  3. Offspring are portable (mother is not tied to nest)

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29

Evolutionary disadvantages of viviparity and placenta

placenta is energetically expensive to produce and bearing live young is energetically costly

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30

reptile skin

waterproof, keratinized

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31

Four major lineages of reptiles

  1. lizards and snakes

  2. turtles

  3. crocodiles and alligators

  4. birds

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32

reptilian adaptations for life on land

  • skin is watertight by a layer of scales made of keratin

  • breathe air through well-developed lungs

  • lay shelled, amniotic eggs

  • most are ectotherms (cold-blooded)

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33

Wings and flight developed independently in these three lineages

  1. pterosaurs

  2. birds

  3. bats

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34

Vertebrate flights is a _____ trait

analogous

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35

similarities between crocodiles, birds, and dinosaurs

four-chambered heart (possibly: brood care and vocalization)

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36

Aves (birds)

endothermy, feathers, bill (keratin), flight, gizzard (instead of teeth)

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characteristics unique to aves (not seen in dinosaurs)

  • acute vision

  • large brains

  • ultra-light bones

  • forelimbs modified as wings

  • no teeth (minus some birds)

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38

characteristics shared between aves and some/all dinosaurs

  • feathers

  • bill made of keratin

  • bipedal

  • endotherm

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39

defining characteristics of primates

  • hands and feet efficient at grasping

  • opposable thumbs

  • flattened nails instead of claws

  • relatively large brains

  • color vision

  • complex social behavior

  • extensive parental care of offspring

  • forward-facing eyes

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40

Hominids

(great apes) large bodied with long arms, short legs, and no tail, distinct ways of walking (fist-walk or knuckle-walk)

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41

synapomorphy defining hominins

bipedalism

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42

humans

large brain capable of complex tasks, upright, bipedal, reduced jawbones and jaw muscles, relatively short digestive tract

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43

human/chimp genome comaprison

99% identical, differ in expression of 19 regulatory genes

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44

population

all the individuals of one species in a given area at a given time

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45

community

all the species in a given area at a given time

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46

ecosystem

all the biotic (multiple communities) and abiotic factors and their interactions in a given area at a given time (includes energy flow and nutrient cycling)

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47

biosphere

the thin zone of life surrounding earth

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48

energy and nutrient flows link

abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem

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49

environmental compartments

  • water

  • soil and rock

  • sediment

  • air

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50

anthropocene

major human impacts on ecology

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51

primary production

  • synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide

  • amount of light energy converted to energy in bonds of organic molecules

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percent of sunlight captured by plants

0.8%

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percentage of gross primary production used for production of biomass versus respiration/lost

45% new biomass, 55% respiration or lost as heat

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54

Why are autotrophs inefficient at capturing solar energy?

  • only certain wavelengths can be captured

  • photosynthetic rates are lowered in certain biomes due to temperature, water availability

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55

secondary production

energy use in herbivores

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56

How do we measure energy transfer and requirements?

bioenergetics

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energy flow

energy moves through ecosystems in a one-way fashion (open system)

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energy in through _____, out through ____

in through photosynthesis, out through respiration (heat)

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matieral/nutrient flow

materials cycle (closed system)

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trophic efficiency

5-20%, limits number of links on food chain

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61

which are more efficient biomass producers, ectoderms or endoderms?

ectoderms because they can spend less energy on cellular respiration and maintaining body heat

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62

which are more efficient biomass producers, small mammals or large mammals?

large mammals because they have a smaller surface-area-to-volume ration and lose less heat, spend less energy on metabolism

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63

energy flow pyramids always

have largest level at base and smallest at point

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64

biomass/trophic level pyramids between grassland, forest, and ocean

grassland and forest show typical pyramid system (largest level is primary producer and smallest is secondary consumer), ocean has large primary consumer rather than producers

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Why is the primary consumer level larger than primary producer level in ocean biomass/trophic level chart?

Quick turnover of primary producers due to zooplankton grazing

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66

net primary production

(gross primary production) - (respiration by autotrophs)

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net primary production is expressed as

energy or biomass added / year

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68

net primary production is very high in

tropical rainforests and coral reefs

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69

terrestrials net primary production is limited by

temperature, water, sunlight, nutrients

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70

which marine environments have highest NPP?

shallow waters along coastlines (receives the most nutrients from rivers and upwelling currents)

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71

Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)

(gross primary production) - (total respiration by community)

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72

Systems that store carbon usually produce

O2

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73

Limiting factors of primary production in ocean

nutrients, mainly nitrogen phosphorus, or iron

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74

Eutrophication

rich in nutrients, organisms, and organic material

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75

nutrient sink

where nutrients are stored

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76

higher temperatures typically lead to ______ decomposition rates

higher

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77

effect of deforestation on nutrient cycling

huge nitrogen loss, loss of calcium and potassium, fewer plants leads to more nutrient loss

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78

examples of biogeochemical cycles

carbon, nitrogen, water, phosphorus and other minerals

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79

biogeochemical cycles

a general model for cycling of materials in global ecological systems

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80

four major nutrient reserves

biotic available, biotic unavailable, abiotic available, abiotic unavailable

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bioavailability

the form of chemical that can be absorbed and metabolized by an organism

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82

bioavailability varies by...

chemical and organism

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83

what factors control the rate of nutrient cycling?

decomposition of detritus

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84

decomposition rate is determined by...

  1. abiotic conditions (oxygen availability, temperature, precipitation)

  2. quality of detritus as a nutrient source for fungi, bacteria, and archaea

  3. abundance and diversity of detritivores present

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85

boreal forests

upper soil layer consists of partially decomposed detritus and organic matter (cold, wet conditions limit decomposer metabolic rates and organic matter builds up)

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86

tropical wet forests

organic layer of soil is absent (moisture and heat allows decomposition to keep pace with detrital inputs)

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87

Nutrients cycle _____ through boreal forests and _____ through wet tropical forests

slowly and quickly

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88

inorganic unavailable forms of nitrogen cycle

N2, NO2i

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89

inorganic available forms of nitrogen cycle

NH4, NO3

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90

organic unavailable forms of nitrogen cycle

chitin?

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91

organic available forms of nitrogen cycle

amino acids, nucleic acids

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forms of nitrogen available to plants

NH4, NO3

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forms of nitrogen available to animals

organic forms only

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94

abiotic reservoir of nitrogen cycle

atmosphere (N2)

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95

key processes of nitrogen cycle

nitrogen fixation by bacteria, uptake by plants

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96

human contribution to nitrogen cycle

fertilizer

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97

reservoirs of carbon cycle

sediments, oceans, biomass, atmosphere, sedimentary rock

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98

the carbon cycle forms

all organic molecules

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human contribution to carbon cycle

respiration, burning of fossil fuels

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reservoirs of phosphorus cycle

marine sedimentary rock, soil oceans

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