Bacteriology 1

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108 Terms

1

Gram +

thick peptidoglycan purple stain spore formation

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2

Gram -

thin peptidoglycan sugars on exterior inner/outer layer stains pink

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3

macroscopic

using naked eye examines colony morphology, color, smell non-specific

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4

Microscopic

using microscope examines shape/structures staining narrow down list using phenotype:

  • aerobic/anaerobic

  • biochemical pathways

  • temp

  • salt

  • pH

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5

Antigenic

specific direct (bound) or indirect (bound to another bound, fc) ELISA and western blot

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6

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific antibody specific to target will bind to antigen if it's present detects immune response not pathogen

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7

Western Blot

view multiple proteins at once to identify specific bound targets looks at immune response

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8

PCR

Molecular replicates DNA for analysis if specific sequence isn't present there is no replication uses RFLP

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9

RFLP

enzymes that recognize and cut specific DNA based on presence/absence of sequence

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10

Bacterial gene expression

environment growth levels

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11

Bacterial transformation

DNA acquired form extracellular environment

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12

Bacterial transduction

bacteriophage take DNA from one cell to a new cell

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13

Bacterial conjugation

bacteria mate to transfer plasmids

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14

Bacterial transposition

transposons jump from regular to plasmid DNA to transfer DNA mutations and gene expression involves plasmids replicating

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15

Peptidoglycan

immune evasion protects membrane from:

  • MAC

  • defensisns

  • lysosomes

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16

Capsules

immune evasion sugar structure hard to bind to/slippery hard to penetrate Protects from:

  • macrophages

  • MAC

  • opsonization can allow to enter cell through macrophage

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17

biofilm

immune evasion hard to penetrate/destroy

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18

spores

immune evasion inert not recognized by immune system until active

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19

protease

immune evasion destroys host protein breakdown antibodies

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20

antigenic variation

immune evasion changing surface epitopes to hide

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21

Adhesion

mechanism attaches to cilia, stops movement binds to receptors on target cell surface

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22

Endotoxins

mechanism/toxin part of pathogen structure, released when cell destroyed Ex. LPS

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23

Exotoxin

mechanism/toxin pathogen produced and released A and B parts both needed to function A: toxin B: let's A in

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24

Superantigens

mechanism/toxin trigger over-release of CD4+ T cells over immune response causes damage to make cell more hospitable for bacteria

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25

Intoxication

immediate effect large quantity of toxin not infection/pathogen dependent goes away once toxin is used up (no replication)

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26

Infection

slow accumulation of toxin as pathogen reproduces reproduces until treated

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27

Bacteriostatic agent

treatment prevents growth, not kills ex. fridge

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28

Bactericidal agent

treatment destroy bacteria ex. bleach

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29

Antibiotics

treatment disruption of cell wall inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis effect metabolic pathways

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30

Antibiotic resistance

changes it's target to avoid recognition develop non-recognizable pathway pump out antibiotic degrade or modify antibiotic antibiotic resistant forms (biofilms, spores, etc.)

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31

Koch's postulates

  1. present in every case

  2. isolated and grown in new culture

  3. reproduces in new host

  4. recoverable from new host

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32

Staph transmission

skin to skin (abrasions) fomite flora depletion

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33

Staph virulence factors

adhesion (slime layer) biofilms capsule enzymes (break down cells/tissues) drug resistance (MRSA) Toxins: superantigens, A-B, cytotoxins

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34

Staph disease

toxic shock scalded skin syndrome bullous impetigo (blisters) MRSA

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35

Staph treatment

antibiotics

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36

Staph epidemiology

Gram + cocci normal flora

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37

S. Pyogenes (Strep A) epidemiology

Gram + cocci

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38

S. Pyogenes (Strep A) transmission

person to person fomite

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39

S. Pyogenes (Strep A) virulence factors

capsule M protein (blocks C3b/opsonization) C5a peptidase (block inflammation) M and F proteins (adhesion)(disrupt junctions) Toxins: A-B, superantigen

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40

S. Pyogenes (Strep A) disease

Strep throat scarlet fever cellulitis necrotizing fasciitis

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41

S. Pyogenes (Strep A) treatment

antibiotics (unresistant)

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42

S. agalactiac (Strep B) epidemiology

Gram + cocci normal flora of vaginal tract

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43

S. agalactiac (Strep B) transmission

flora of vaginal tract to baby during birth

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44

S. agalactiac (Strep B) disease

neonatal infections: bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia

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45

S. agalactiac (Strep B) treatment

antibiotics (just before birth) minimize exposure

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46

S. pneumonia epidemiology

Gram + cocci diplococci

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47

S. pneumonia disease

pneumonia (lung infection)

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48

S. pneumonia treatment

vaccine (targets capsule sugar structure)

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49

Enterococcus epidemiology

Gram + cocci normal flora of GI tract

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50

Enterococcus transmission

person to person fecal to oral fomite disruption of normal flora

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51

Enterococcus virulence factors

wide growth range (salt, pH, aerobic/anaerobic) biofilm antibiotic resistance

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52

Enterococcus treatment

antibiotics (resistant)

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53

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) epidemiology

gram + rod in air spores travel far

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54

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) transmission

ingestion (livestock) cutaneous inhalation

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55

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) virulence factors

spores (stability) capsule Exotoxin: PA+LF= edema (swelling) toxin LF+EF= lethal toxin

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56

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) disease

anthrax poisoning swelling, death

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57

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) treatment

antibiotics (resistance)

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58

Bacillus cereus epidemiology

gram + rod food poisoning

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59

Bacillus cereus transmission

ingestion (foodborne)

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60

Bacillus cereus virulence factors

spores Exotoxins: Heat stable form: emetic (vomiting) (fast, no replication) Heat liable form: diarrheal (slow, toxin build-up)

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61

Bacillus cereus disease

diarrhea vomiting cramps

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62

Bacillus cereus treatment

pepto-bismol (for symptoms) antibiotics (immunocompromised) (resistance)

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63

Listeria epidemiology

gram + rod viable in/out of cells (facultative intracellular pathogen) grows at fridge temp can grow in high salt or wide pH

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64

Listeria transmission

contaminated food/dairy

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65

Listeria virulence factors

cell invasion escapes lysosome

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66

Listeria disease

spontaneous abortion diarrhea meningitis (rare)

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67

Listeria treatment

self limiting antibiotics if severe (resistance)

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68

Corynebacterium diphtheriae epidemiology

gram + rod normal flora facultative anaerobes

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69

Corynebacterium diphtheriae virulence factors

Exotoxin: A-B (regulated expression) (A blocks eukaryotic translation)

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70

Corynebacterium diphtheriae treatment

antibiotics passive immunization against exotoxin

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71

Clostridium difficile (Cdif) epidemiology

gram + rod normal flora obligate anaerobes

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72

Clostridium difficile (Cdif) transmission

antibiotic usage (depletion of flora) hospital acquisition (spores)

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73

Clostridium difficile (Cdif) virulence factors

spores A-B exotoxin

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74

Clostridium difficile (Cdif) disease

Diarrhea (mild) colitis (death of colon) (severe)

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75

Clostridium difficile (Cdif) treatment

antibiotics fecal transplant

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76

Clostridium perfinges epidemiology

gram + rod obligate anaerobes not killed by heat or refrigiration

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77

Clostridium perfinges transmission

contaminated meat cutaneous (spores)

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78

Clostridium perfinges virulence factors

neurotoxin spores

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79

Clostridium perfinges disease

cellulitis (tissue death) (mild) myonecrosis (muscle necrosis) (severe)

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80

Clostridium perfinges treatment

antibiotics debridement (manual removal, death in oxygen)

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81

Clostridium tetani epidemiology

gram + rod obligate anaerobes

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82

Clostridium tetani transmission

cutaneous (spores)

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83

Clostridium tetani virulence factors

neurotoxin (interferes w/muscle communication) spores

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84

Clostridium tetani disease

localized muscle spasms (mild) global muscle spasms (severe) tetanus

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85

Clostridium tetani treatment

antibiotics debridement passive immunization

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86

Clostridium botulinum epidemiology

gram + rod obligate anaerobes toxin used in botox

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87

Clostridium botulinum transmission

contaminated food (spores) canned food, dairy, infant formula

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88

Clostridium botulinum virulence factors

neurotoxin (release of transmitters) spores

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89

Clostridium botulinum disease

Botulism: paralysis and respiratory arrest

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90

Clostridium botulinum treatment

antibiotic passive immunization

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91

Mycobacterium tuberculosis epidemiology

slow growing not gram + or - (acid-fast) no LPS granuloma formation structure unrecognizable to disinfectants/antibiotics (lipid-rich cell wall)

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92

Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission

aerosol

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93

Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factors

prevents fusion to lysosome resistant to nitric oxide-mediated killing immune controlled but not cleared granuloma (little prison cells made up of immune cells in lungs)

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94

Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease

tuberculosis blood in cough systemic in immunocompromised

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95

Mycobacterium tuberculosis treatment

controlled in healthy patients long antibiotic treatment in immunocompromised (resistant)

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96

Staph prevention

hygiene clean medical equipment

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97

S. pyogenes (Strep A) prevention

hygiene

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98

S. agalactiac (Strep B) prevention

hygiene

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99

S. pneumonia prevention

vaccine (capsule targeted antibodies)

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100

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) prevention

toxoid vaccine in animals protective equipment (gardening)

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