GRAM-POSITIVE SPORE-FORMING BACILLI

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108 Terms

1

bacillus spp.

  • identify the genus

  • cells arranged in long chains

  • central spores

  • aerobic

  • hemolysis in B. cereus

  • gelatin liquefied

  • inverted tree

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2

long chains

  • bacillus spp.

  • cell structure

  • cells arranged in _

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3

central

  • bacillus spp.

  • cell structure

  • _ spores

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4

aerobic

  • bacillus spp.

  • culture

  • _ (aerobic or anaerobic?)

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5

bacillus cereus

  • bacillus spp.

  • culture

  • hemolysis in _

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6

gelatin

  • bacillus spp.

  • culture

  • _ liquefied

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7

inverted tree

  • bacillus spp.

  • culture

  • in gelatin stabs, _

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8

bacillus anthracis

  • bacillus spp.

  • primarily affects herbivores

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9

cutaneous

  • bacillus anthracis

  • humans infected via contact with diseased animals

  • 95% _

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10

spore inhalation

  • bacillus anthracis

  • humans infected via contact with diseased animals

  • 5% _

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11

rare

  • bacillus anthracis

  • humans infected via contact with diseased animals

  • GI anthrax is _

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12

mouth

  • bacillus anthracis

  • in animals, portal of entry via _

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13

poly-D-glutamic acid capsule

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • prevents phagocytosis

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14

pXO2

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • capsules are encoded on plasmid _

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15

spore

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • _-former

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16

pXO1

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • exotoxins are encoded on plasmid _

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17

protective antigen

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • exotoxin which promotes entry of EF

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18

B subunit

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • protective antigens are similar to the _

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19

edema factor

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • exotoxin which impairs neutrophil function causing massive edema

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20

A subunit

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • edema factors have an active _

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21

lethal factor

  • bacillus anthracis

  • pathogenesis

  • exotoxin which stimulates release of tumor necrosis factor

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22

cutaneous

  • bacillus anthracis

  • clinical finding

  • painless black vesicles

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23

pulmonary

  • bacillus anthracis

  • clinical finding

  • lungs

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24

GI

  • bacillus anthracis

  • clinical finding

  • abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhea

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25

ciprofloxacin

  • bacillus anthracis

  • treatment

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26

doxycycline

  • bacillus anthracis

  • treatment

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27

raxibacumab

  • bacillus anthracis

  • treatment for pulmonary

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28

vaccines

  • bacillus anthracis

  • treatment

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29

gram stain

  • bacillus anthracis

  • diagnostics

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30

culture

  • bacillus anthracis

  • diagnostics

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31

serology

  • bacillus anthracis

  • diagnostics

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32

PCR

  • bacillus anthracis

  • diagnostics

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33

bacillus cereus

  • bacillus spp.

  • motile, nonencapsulated

  • causes food poisoning when spores are ingested

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34

endospores

  • bacillus cereus

  • pathogenesis

  • what kind of spores?

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35

heat-labile toxin

  • bacillus cereus

  • pathogenesis

  • enterotoxin which causes nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea

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36

heat-stable toxin

  • bacillus cereus

  • pathogenesis

  • enterotoxin which causes causes nausea and vomiting, limited diarrhea

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37

food poisoning

  • bacillus cereus

  • clinical findings

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

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38

bacteremia

  • bacillus cereus

  • clinical findings

  • rare

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39

endocarditis

  • bacillus cereus

  • clinical findings

  • rare

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40

vancomycin

  • bacillus cereus

  • treatment

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41

clindamycin

  • bacillus cereus

  • treatment

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42

no

  • bacillus cereus

  • is there treatment for food poisoning?

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43

contaminated food

  • bacillus cereus

  • diagnostic

  • culture from _

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44

clostridium spp.

  • identify the genus

  • rod-shaped

  • central, subterminal, or terminal spores

  • peritrichously- flagellated

  • anaerobes, few aerotolerant

  • grows well on blood-enriched media

  • B-hemolytic

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45

rod

  • clostridium spp.

  • cell structure

  • _-shaped

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46

central

  • clostridium spp.

  • cell structure

  • _ spores

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47

subterminal

  • clostridium spp.

  • cell structure

  • _ spores

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48

terminal

  • clostridium spp.

  • cell structure

  • _ spores

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49

peritrichously

  • clostridium spp.

  • cell structure

  • _-flagellated

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50

anaerobic

  • clostridium spp.

  • culture

  • aerobic or anaerobic?

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51

aerotolerant

  • clostridium spp.

  • culture

  • few species are _

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52

blood-enriched

  • clostridium spp.

  • culture

  • grows well on _ media

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53

beta

  • clostridium spp.

  • culture

  • _-hemolytic

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54

clostridium botulinum

  • clostridium spp.

  • found in soil, canned or bagged food products, smoked fish, and honey

  • causes flaccid paralysis

  • adult, infant, wound

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55

neurotoxin

  • clostridium botulinum

  • pathogenesis

  • inhibits release of acetylcholine from peripheral nerves

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56

death

neurotoxins are released upon _ of bacterium

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57

foodborne botulism

  • clostridium botulinum

  • clinical findings

  • GI symptoms

  • cranial nerve palsies

  • muscle weakness

  • respiratory paralysis

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58

infant botulism

  • clostridium botulinum

  • clinical findings

  • constipation

  • flaccid paralysis

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59

wound botulism

  • clostridium botulinum

  • clinical findings

  • cranial nerve palsies

  • muscle weakness

  • respiratory paralysis

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60

antitoxin

  • clostridium botulinum

  • treatment FB and WB

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61

BIG-IV

  • clostridium botulinum

  • treatment for IB

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62

penicillin

  • clostridium botulinum

  • treatment

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63

intubation

  • clostridium botulinum

  • treatment

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64

surgical debridement

  • clostridium botulinum

  • treatment for WB

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65

gram stain

  • clostridium botulinum

  • diagnostics

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66

culture

  • clostridium botulinum

  • diagnostics

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67

clostridium tetani

  • clostridium spp.

  • skin trauma by any spore-contaminated object

  • found in soil and animal feces

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68

tetanospasmin

  • clostridium tetani

  • pathogenesis

  • sustained contraction of skeletal muscles called ‘tetany

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69

Renshaw cell

  • clostridium tetani

  • pathogenesis

  • tetanospasmin inhibits release of _ interneurons

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70

GABA

  • clostridium tetani

  • pathogenesis

  • tetanospasmin inhibits the release of _ which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter

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71

glycine

  • clostridium tetani

  • pathogenesis

  • tetanospasmin inhibits the release of _ which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter

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72

high frequency

  • clostridium tetani

  • pathogenesis

  • tetanospasmin leads to _ impulses to the muscle cells

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73

muscle spasms

  • clostridium tetani

  • clinical findings

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74

lockjaw

  • clostridium tetani

  • clinical findings

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75

risus sardonicus

  • clostridium tetani

  • clinical findings

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76

respiratory muscle paralysis

  • clostridium tetani

  • clinical findings

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77

tetanus toxoid

  • clostridium tetani

  • treatment

  • part of DTaP vaccine

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78

human tetanus immune globulin

  • clostridium tetani

  • treatment

  • antitoxin

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79

clean

  • clostridium tetani

  • treatment

  • _ the wound

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80

metronidazole

  • clostridium tetani

  • treatment

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81

penicillin

  • clostridium tetani

  • treatment

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82

gram stain

  • clostridium tetani

  • diagnostics

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83

culture

  • clostridium tetani

  • diagnostics

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84

clostridium perfringens

  • clostridium spp.

  • causes gas gangrene

  • found in soil

  • rampant and one of the primary causes of death in soldiers before penicillin

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85

lecithinase

  • clostridium perfringens

  • pathogenesis

  • alpha toxin

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86

tissue destructive

  • clostridium perfringens

  • pathogenesis

  • other _ enzymes

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87

cellulitis

  • clostridium perfringens

  • clinical findings

  • necrotic skin exposed

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88

crepitus

  • clostridium perfringens

  • clinical findings

  • wound infection: moist, spongy, crackling consistency due to pockets of gas

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89

clostridial myonecrosis

  • clostridium perfringens

  • clinical findings

  • destroys muscles

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90

diarrheal illness

  • clostridium perfringens

  • clinical findings

  • ingested contaminated food

  • watery diarrhea

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91

amputation

  • clostridium perfringens

  • treatment

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92

penicilin

  • clostridium perfringens

  • treatment

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93

hyperbaric oxygen

  • clostridium perfringens

  • treatment

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94

gram stain

  • clostridium perfringens

  • diagnostics

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95

culture

  • clostridium perfringens

  • diagnostics

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96

clostridiodes difficile

  • identify the genus

  • causes pseudomembranous colitis

  • responsible for antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis

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97

pseudomembranous colitis

infection described as having a red, inflamed mucosa and areas of white exudate

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98

toxin A

  • clostridiodes difficile

  • pathogenesis

  • causes diarrhea

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99

toxin B

  • clostridiodes difficile

  • pathogenesis

  • cytotoxic to the colonic cells

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100

binary toxin CDT

  • clostridiodes difficile

  • pathogenesis

  • newly discovered in 2002

  • produces 15 to 20 times more toxins

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