KINS304 Exam #4

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Hindfoot (rear-foot)

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122 Terms

1

Hindfoot (rear-foot)

-talus

-calcaneus

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2

Midfoot

-navicular

-cuboid

-3 cuneiforms

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3

Forefoot

5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges

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4

The 3 arches of the foot

-medial longitudinal

-lateral longitudinal

-transverse

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5

Functions of the foot

-support body weight

-adapt to uneven surfaces

-absorb shock

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6

Gait analysis

the study of human locomotion used to assess posture and coordination during movement

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7

Gait cycle

the sequence of events between one foot strike and the subsequent foot strike of the same limb

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8

Stance phase (support phase)

-foot is in contact with the ground and weight bearing

-60% of gait cycle

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9

Swing phase

-foot is suspended in air and non-weight bearing

-40% of gait cycle

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10

When walking, we have periods of…

double support

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11

What are the five elements of the stance phase?

  1. initial contact (heel-strike): when foot touches ground

  2. loading response: weight transfers onto supporting limb; joints begin to absorb shock

  3. midstance: body is directly over the support limb; joints are stacked

  4. terminal stance: body moves forward to prepare for weight transfer; “falling forward”

  5. pre-swing (toe-off): limb begins to unload as weight is transferred and accepted by the opposite limb

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12

What are the three elements of the swing phase?

  1. initial swing: foot comes off floor and femur advances forward

  2. mid swing: foot clears the ground as the thigh advances forward

  3. terminal swing: lower extremity prepares to contact the ground again

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13

What happens to the stance and swing phases when running?

they switch so…

60% swing phase and 40% stance phase

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14

What is added as we run?

a flight phase

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15

Is only one foot or are both feet in contact with the ground when running?

only one foot

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16

Step

distance between the points of contact of contralateral (opposite) feet

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17

Stride

distance between ipsilateral (same) points of contact

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18

What is a healthy gait (stride)?

about 1 second to complete stride

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19

Which of Newtons Laws can be applied with gait?

Newtons Third Law: with every action there is an equal and opposite directed reaction

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20

How can ground reaction forces identify gait issues?

-see how force changes between different activities

-see how different strike patterns impact forces

-see how footwear impacts forces

-see how size/weight impacts forces

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21

Heel strike

heel lands first, followed by the forefoot

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22

Midfoot strike

heel and ball of foot land simultaneously

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23

Forefoot strike

ball of foot lands first, followed by the heel

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24

Which strike pattern of the foot is best for reduced injury?

not enough research to back up evidence and answer questions

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25

Compression

due to body weight and gravity

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26

Hip compression

-bears up to 3-4x body weight while walking stance phase

-7x body weight during running

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27

Knee compression

-bears about 3x body weight during walking

-4x body weight during stair climbing

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28

Ankle/foot compression

-about equal in body weight during walking

-about 2-3x body weight during running

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29

Compressive forces on joints increase or decrease as body weight and activity speed increase?

increase

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30

Tension

due to passive eccentric loading

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31

What does tension during the stance phase result in?

results in stored energy which is then used during the push-off/toe-off phases of walking and running

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32

The use of stored energy reduces the…

metabolic energy cost during gait

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33

Anatomical factors impacting human gait

-Q-angle

-Coxa varus and Coxa valga

-Genu valgum and Genu varum

-arch height

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34

Other factors impacting human gait

-ROM

-strength

-motor function and control

-balance and stability

-previous injury

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35

What will happen if one or more factors is compromised?

other joints will begin to compensate for the injured joint

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36

Gait change after lateral ankle sprain

-chronic ankle instability

  • increased ankle inversion at initial contact

  • lateral foot loading during support phases

  • hip adduction during swing phase

-increased peak ankle plantarflexion moment (rotational force)

-decreased knee flexion moment during toe-off

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37

Gait change after ACL injury

-limb differences between surgical and healthy limb

  • decreased knee flexion

  • decreased tibial internal rotation

  • decreased knee flexion moment

  • decreased adduction moment

-decreased knee flexion angle, decreased knee flexion and adduction moments

-knee flexion and adduction moments differences present up to 5 years after surgery

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38

Trendelenburg Gait

-weakness in and/or instability to control hip abductors

-gluteus medius/minimus

-causes the contralateral (opposite) hip to drop

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39

Steppage gait (foot drop)

-paralysis of the ankle dorsiflexors

-increase hip flexion to clear the ground

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40

Slap gait

-weakness of ankle dorsiflexors causing the foot to slap during eccentric contraction

-typically creates audible sound

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41

What can we do for anatomy/alignment issues?

-braces

-orthotics

-corrective devices

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42

What can we do for prevention and rehabilitation?

-increase ROM and flexibility

-increase strength

-increase motor function/coordination

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43

What equipment can we analyze to help gait?

-footwear

  • goal is to decrease impulse and aid in shock absorption

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44

6 steps to a kinematic analysis

  1. Ask questions

  2. Optimal perspective

  3. Optimal viewing distance

  4. Number of trials

  5. Attire and environment

    1. Video camera

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45

Cerebrum

controls conscious thought and intellectual function, memory storage and processing

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46

Cerebellum

coordinates motor patterns, responsible for balance and coordination

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47

Brain Stem

responsible for autonomic functions (breathing, heart rate, body temperature, organ function, sensory information, etc)

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48

The spine has how many bones?

33

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49

Functions of the spine

-protect spinal cord

-support body weight

-muscle attachments

-enables motion in 3 cardinal planes

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50

Spinal curvatures aid in…

shock absorption

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51

Primary curvatures

thoracic and sacral regions; present at birth

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52

Secondary curvatures

cervical and lumbar regions; develop as we support our body weight

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53

Scoliosis

lateral curvature of spine

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54

Kyphosis

increased thoracic curvature

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55

Lordosis

increased lumbar curvature

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56

What vertebrae has the largest ROM?

cervical

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57

What vertebrae has limited ROM?

thoracic

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58

Increased size helps withstand and reduce stress in what vertebrae?

lumbarI

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59

In lumbar, as surface area increases, what decreases?

stress

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60

Stress

distribution of force within a body

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61

Compression

pressing/squeezing force directed axially

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62

Tension

pulling/stretching force directed axially

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63

Bending

asymmetric loading that produces compression on one side and tension on the other side

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64

Shear

force directed parallel or tangent to a surface

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65

Torsion

twisting force around the longitudinal axis

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66

Combined

simultaneous action of 2+ types of loading and is the most common type of loading

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67

What are the cushions of the spine?

intervertebral discs

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68

What type of mechanical loads does the spine go through?

-Standing and daily activities= axial compression

-During flexion, extension, and lateral bending= compression and tension

-Rotation: shear stress

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69

What are the facet joints of the spine?

-assist in load bearing, and help resist compressive loads, shear forces, and rotational torsion

-increased load during hyperextension

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70

Where is most stress placed on in the spine?

L4-S1 discs and facet joints

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71

What is the primary load affecting the spine?

compression

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72

What significantly increases the load on the lumbar spine?

sitting, slouching, bending, lateral flexion, and rotation

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73

Deformation

change in shapeq

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74

What is the yield point in the load-deformation curve?

point where deformation is permenant

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75

What is the elastic region on the load-deformation curve?

temporary deformation

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76

What is the plastic region on the load-deformation curve?

the point of no return for deformation

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77

Over time, our tissues lose…

elasticity

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78

Acute loading

-application of a single force of sufficient magnitude to cause injury to a biological tissue

-macrotrauma: high load, low frequency

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79

Repetitive loading

-repeated application of a subacute load that is usually of relatively low magnitude

-microtrauma: low load, high frequency

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80

Examples of acute loading

-concussions

-dislocations

-spinal injury

-strains

-sprains

-dislocations

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81

Examples of repetitive loading

-disc herniations

-low back pain

-parkinsons and alzheimers

-stress fractures

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82

Spondy

repetitive hyperextension of the spine

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83

Disc herniations

protrusion of the nucleus pulposus from the annulus fibrosus

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84

What are some common causes of disc herniations?

-disc generation

-poor mechanics

-repetitive flexion and/or twisting

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85

Common culprits of low back pain

-poor mechanics

-muscular weakness

-overweight/obesity

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86

What Newtons Law corresponds with traumatic brain injuries?

Newtons First Law: a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force

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87

Momentum

influenced by mass, velocity, and direction of the bodies involved

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88

Impulse

must consider the magnitude and timing of the force

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Impact

large force over a small time interval

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90

Concussion

“trauma-induced alteration in mental status that may or may not involve loss of consciousness”

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91

Physical symptoms of a concussion

-nausea

-vomiting

-headache

-light/noise sensitivity

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92

Cognitive symptoms of a concussion

-confusion

-amnesia

-difficulty remembering

-difficulty concentrating

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93

Emotional and behavioral symptoms of a concussion

-irritability

-sadness

-nervousness/anxiety

-opposite of normal mood

-change in sleep patterns

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94

Prevention for concussions

-education

-proper form and coaching

-activity tracking and modification

-neck strengthening

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95

What are the motions at the knee joint?

-flexion

-extension

-internal rotation

-external rotation

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96

What does the patella do for the knee?

-increases the mechanical effectiveness of the quads by changing the line of pull and increasing the lever arm

-increases contact area between structures

  • reduces friction

  • decreases pressure/stress

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97

Menisci are the ___ of the knee

shock absorbers

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98

Menisci aid in…

proprioception

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99

Ligaments enhance the ___ of the knee joint

stability

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100

What are the two collateral ligaments?

Lateral Collateral and Medial Collateral

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