Studied by 1 person

0.0(0)

Get a hint

Hint

1

1 in = _____ cm

2.54 cm

New cards

2

1 mile = ____ km = ____ m

1.609 km, 1609 m

New cards

3

Proximal

In proximity to or closer to. Generally meaning closer to the torso.

New cards

4

Distal

Distant or further away. Generally meaning further from the torso.

New cards

5

Sagital

Divides into right and left halves

New cards

6

Frontal

Divides into front and back halves

New cards

7

Transverse

Divides into top and bottom halves

New cards

8

Movement occurs in the plane that it is ____ to.

Parallel

New cards

9

What type of exercises occur in the sagittal plane?

Situps Back extensions Bicep curls Running

New cards

10

What type of exercises occur in the frontal plane?

Jumping jacks Side bends Lateral dumbbell raises

New cards

11

What type of exercise occurs in the transverse plane?

Anything that involves rotation

New cards

12

What type of motion occurs in the sagittal plane?

Flexion/Extension

New cards

13

What type of motion occurs in the frontal plane

Adduction/Abduction, side flexion, inversion/eversion

New cards

14

What type of motion occurs in the transverse plane

internal/external rotation, horizontal flexion/extension, and supination/protination

New cards

15

What axis of motion corresponds with the sagittal plane?

Mediolateral Axis

New cards

16

What axis of motion corresponds with the transverse plane?

Superior-inferior Axis

New cards

17

What axis of motion corresponds with the frontal plane?

Anterior-Posterior Axis

New cards

18

What kind of activities are primarily planar?

Running, cycling, cartwheeling, and a softball pitch

New cards

19

What kind of activities are multiplanar?

Tennis serve, baseball pitch, and roundhouse kick

New cards

20

The mass of an object is determined by the amount of _________ in the object, and is measured in ___.

matter, kg

New cards

21

What 2 things does mass determine?

Measure of inertia

Determines the strength of gravitational attraction

New cards

22

Weight is a ________ and is measured in ___ . The equation for weight is _____________.

force, N Fg=W=mg

New cards

23

1 lb = ____ kg

0.455 kg

New cards

24

An object's ______ is the same everywhere, whereas it's ______ changes depending on where it is (eg. moon vs earth).

mass, weight

New cards

25

Mechanics

Analysis of the motion of an object and the forces acting upon the object

New cards

26

Biomechanics

Application of principles of mechanics to the study of living organisms

New cards

27

What are the two main subfields of biomechanics?

Rigid Body Biomechanics Deformable Body Biomechanics

New cards

28

What are the two main divisions within Rigid Body Biomechanics?

Statics Dynamics

New cards

29

Statics

The study of systems in a state of equilibrium (at rest or in a constant state of motion)

Forces are balanced = equilibrium

New cards

30

Dynamics

Interested in changing systems Broken down into two major areas: Kinematics and Kinetics

New cards

31

What are the two main divisions within Dynamics?

Kinematics Kinetics

New cards

32

Kinematics

The study of motion WITHOUT consideration of the CAUSE eg. speed

Describing and measuring human movement by focusing on the type of motion, the direction, and the quantity of the motion without regard for the forces that may produce that movement

New cards

33

Kinetics

The study of the CAUSE of motion (forces) eg. muscle force

Deals with forces that produce, stop, or modify motion of bodies as a whole or of individual body segments

New cards

34

Reference Frames (Cartesian Coordinates)

System describing a body's location in space (aka coordinate system)

Direction (3 axes)

Location (point of origin) Follows right hand rule (pointer finger x, middle y, thumb z)

New cards

35

Right Hand Rule

(pointer finger x, middle y, thumb z)

New cards

36

An angle CCW from the x-axis is ___. An angle CW from the x-axis is ___.

positive, negative

New cards

37

Vector

Fully described by both magnitude and direction (how big and what is direction)

Displacement Velocity Acceleration Force

New cards

38

Tip to Tail Method

Method of vector addition where one can add any two vectors by placing the tail of one so that it meets the tip of the other one

New cards

39

Vector Specified Two Ways:

Directly: magnitude and direction (A and theta)

Indirectly: X and Y components (xA and yA)

New cards

40

REMEMBER on Vectors

Magnitude sign is ALWAYS POSITIVE

Direction sign depend on reference (components sign pos/neg based on how vectors points)

New cards

41

Scalar

Fully described by magnitude (how big)

Distance Speed Maass Energy Temperature

New cards

42

Vector Equality

Two vectors are considered equal if they possess the same magnitude and direction

New cards

43

Commutative law of addition

When vectors are added together, the sum is independent of the order of addition

New cards

44

Resultant

A vector that represents the sum of all individual vectors acting upon a system

New cards

45

What are the 7 steps of multiple-vector composition?

Draw vectors in coordinate system, with tails at the origin

Break them down: turn each vector into x and y components

Add up all the x's= Rx

Add up all they y's= Ry

Put them back together again: draw Rx and Ry from tip-to-tail and compose them into the final R

Use Pythagorean theorem to find magnitude (POSITIVE)

Use tan-1 to find direction (NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE)

New cards

46

Position (P)

Location in space

Use a vector to describe a body's position, P, in the frame of reference (magnitude + direction)

∆P = "change in position" = displacement ∆P = P (final) - P (initial)

New cards

47

Displacement

Change in position of an object (in a specific direction i.e. 5 miles Northeast, or by X and Y components i.e. 4 miles E and 3 miles N)

Vector > specify as magnitude in a specific direction

∆P = "change in position" = displacement ∆P = P (final) - P (initial)

New cards

48

Distance

How far the object traveled to get from P (initial) to P (final)

Scalar > actual route taken

New cards

49

T/F Distance is always greater than the magnitude of displacement

F

New cards

50

Rates

How fast something is changing

Rate of change = ∆ something / ∆ t

Ie. Units = liters/min or m/s

New cards

51

Velocity

Rate of change of position (displacement/time) Vector [m/s]

Vavg = ∆P /∆t ∆P = displacement P(final)-P(initial) ∆t = change in time t(final)-t(initial)

New cards

52

Speed

Rate of change of distance Scalar > only informs how fast, no direction m/s

Savg = d/∆t

SPEED and VELOCITY are NOT THE SAME

New cards

53

Acceleration

Rate of change of velocity Vector [m/s2]

Aavg = ∆V / ∆t ∆V = V(final) - V(initial)

New cards

54

Acceleration directiions

Positive acceleration (+ direction) ∆V is pos, V value is increasing so f > i

Negative acceleration (- direction) ∆V is neg, V value is decreasing so f < i

New cards

55

If the V value increases, then acceleration is ___. If the V value decreases, then acceleration is ___.

positive, negative

New cards

56

tangent

A line in the plane of a circle that intersects the circle in exactly one point.

New cards

57

Distinguish between average and instantaneous rates

Slope between two time points gives average rate Slope at a time point gives instantaneous rate

New cards

58

Instantaneous speed/velocity

The rate of motion at a given instant in time (delta t becomes very small)

New cards

59

T/F with a linear velocity, Vavg = Vinstantaneous

T

New cards

60

Acceleration

slope of the time-velocity curve

New cards

61

Velocity

slope of the time-position curve

New cards

62

Change in position

area under the time-velocity curve

New cards

63

Change in velocity

area under the time-acceleration curve

New cards

64

Constant acceleration (flat slope) results in a ________ change in velocity.

linear (velocity changes at a constant rate)

New cards

65

Constant velocity (flat slope) results in a ________ change in displacement.

linear (displacement changes at a constant rate)

New cards

66

A linear change in velocity results in a _______ change in displacement.

non-linear (slope is not constant)

New cards

67

Uniform acceleration (eg. gravity) can predict __________ and ____________.

displacement, velocity

New cards

68

Slope

Rise over run

∆ vertical value / ∆ horizontal value

New cards

69

Projectile

A body in free fall that is subject only to the forces of gravity and air resistance (neglected)

New cards

70

Why do we analyze the horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion independently?

The vertical component is influenced by gravity, the horizontal component is not

New cards

71

Vertical projectile motion relies on:

Constant (yA = -9.81 m/s) Symmetry (when appropriate)

New cards

72

Symmetry in upward projectiles

patter of change in vertical position of a projectile is SYMMETRICAL ABOUT THE PEAK

for symmetry need initial positive yVi (moving up)

New cards

73

Projectile trajectory

Motion in both x and y directions Parabolic shape (curved, symmetrical) Influenced by initial projection speed, projection angle, and relative projection height

New cards

74

What does the shape of a trajectory depend on?

Projection angle

New cards

75

Initial conditions determine motion that a projectile will have:

TRAJECTORY: Projection speed > size Projection angle > shape Relative projection heigh > location

New cards

76

If want to max time of flight or heigh reached:

Increase projection angle Increase projection speed Higher release (projection height)

New cards

77

If want to minimize time of flight:

Decrease projection angle Increase projection speed

New cards

78

If want to max horizontal displacement:

Projection angle should approach 45 degree Increase projection speed Higher release (projection) height

New cards

79

Categories of Forces

Every force has one property from each category:

PUSH or PULL forces CONTACT or NON-CONTACT forces EXTERNAL or INTERNAL forces

ie. Gravity: pull, non-contact, external People: push, contact, external

New cards

80

Internal forces

Act completely within defined system

Can cause the object to change shape but cannot produce any changes to body's COM without an external force

Something INSIDE system applies a force to something else INSIDE system

New cards

81

External forces

Act on the system from the outside

Causes changes to a body's motion

Something OUTSIDE system applies a force to something INSIDE system

New cards

82

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

Diagram showing vector representations of all the external forces acting on a defined system

New cards

83

First law of uniformly accelerated motion (vertical velocity)

Second law of uniformly accelerated motion (vertical position)

Third law of uniformly accelerated motion (vertical velocity)

yVf = yVi + (ya)(tf)

Yf = Yi + (yVi)(tf) + (1/2)(ya)(tf2) 3.yVf2 = yVi2 + (2)(ya)(∆ Y)

New cards

84

The horizontal _______ of a projectile is constant. Therefore, ___________ is zero.

velocity, acceleration

New cards

85

3 Equations for the horizontal motion of a projectile (uniform velocity)

Xf = Xi + (xVavg)(∆t)

xVf = xVi = Constant

a = 0

New cards

86

3 things projectile trajectory is it influenced by?

Initial speed Projection angle Relative projection height

New cards

87

What are the 7 steps of the problem solving strategy for projectiles?

Write down which variable you need to know

List all known variables

Break up initial velocity into horizontal and vertical components

Figure out which equations allow you to solve for the unknown variable from the known variables

Rearrange the equation to isolate the desired variable

Plug in the known variables

solve.

New cards

88

Trajectory shape depends only on projection _________.

angle

New cards

89

Relative projection height = ?

Relative projection height = (projection height) - (landing height)

New cards

90

Contact forces vs. Non contact forces

CONTACT forces: between objects touching each other

NON CONTACT forces: eg. gravitational force

New cards

91

Equation for the force of gravity (weight)

W = Fg = mg

New cards

92

If only given initial velocity, which direction do you analyze to determine the time of flight of a projectile?

Vertical

New cards

93

Net force

The vector addition of all the external forces acting on an object

New cards

94

Inertia

A resistance an object has to change in motion, specifically a resistance to change in a body's velocity; resist acceleration

Applies to bodies at rest, moving linearly, and rotating

Quantitively measured by an object's MASS (units kg)

Has mass then has inertia

New cards

95

Mass is ____________ related to resistance to change in motion (Inertia).

directly

New cards

96

Momentum definition and equation

The quantity of motion that an object possesses

relates to effort needed to stop a motion

An objects linear momentum is related to its mass (m) and Linear Velocity (V)

L = mV

Still object (V = 0 ) has no momentum

New cards

97

Newton's first law is the law of ___ , the second is the law of ___, and the third is the law of __________.

inertia, acceleration, reaction

New cards

98

Newtons 1st law

"The Law of Inertia"

An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force

Conservation of momentum

ie. drinking coffee while sitting in a moving car

ie. horizontal motion of a projectile

New cards

99

Newtons 1st Law: Conservation of Momentum

Formula: L = mV

If ΣF = 0 then L constant, mV constant ∆L = 0, ∆ (mV) = 0

Still object (V = 0 ) has no momentum

New cards

100

Newton's 2nd law

"The Law of Acceleration"

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force exerted on it (and inversely proportional to its mass)

ΣF = mA

New cards