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121 Terms

1

psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, additudes and traits

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structuralism

early school of thought prompted by Wundt and Titcher; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

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experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

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empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation

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human factors psychology

a i/o psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines an psysican environments could be easy and safe to use

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6

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies asseses and treat people with psychological disorders

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7

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

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functionalism

early school thought prompted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt survive and flourish

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9

psychodynamic psychology

branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

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10

evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using proncibles of natural selection

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11

biological psycholgy

the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes

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behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explaination by principle of learning

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13

natural selection

the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed onto succeeding generations

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14

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

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15

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition, perception thinking, memory and language

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social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

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cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

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biopsychological approach

the intergrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social-cultural levels of analysis

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applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practice problems

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social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another

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personality psychology

the study of an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking and acting

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basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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23

counseling psychology

assets people with problems in living and in achieving a greater well being

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psychietry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychologcal disorderspracticed by physicians who sometimes provides medical treatments and psychological treatments

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positive psych

scientific study of human functioning with the goals of discoverings and promoting strengths and virtures that help individuals and communities to thrive

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community psych

a branch that studies how people interact with their social environments. how social institudes affects people

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educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can ennhance teaching and learning

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developmental psych

a branch of psycholoy that studies physical, cognitive and social change through life

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humanisitic psychology

a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people

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30

nature-nurture issue

the long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Todays science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

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behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that studies (2) behavior without reference to mental processes. most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)

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cognitive psychologists

Basic researchstudies thought processes and focus on such topics as perception, language, attention, problem solving, memory, judgment and decision making.

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developmental psychologists

basic researchfocus on human growth and changes across the lifespan, including physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality and emotional growth.

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educational psychologists

basic researcha psychologist whose differentiating functions may include diagnostic and psycho-educational assessment, psychological counseling in educational communities

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experimental psychologists

basic researchuse scientific methods to collect data and perform research

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psychometric and quantitive psychologists

basic researchdevelop and analyze a wide variety of research methods, including those of psychometrics, a field concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.

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social psychologists

basic researchstudy interpersonal and group dynamics and social challenges, such as prejudice, implicit bias, bullying, criminal activity and substance abuse. They research social interactions and the factors that influence them, such as group behavior, attitudes, public perceptions and leadership.

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forensic psychologist

applied research assess behavioral, emotional, and psychological problems and disorders. Writing Reports and Articles: Forensic psychologists write reports discussing criminal profiles, criminal responsibility, and mental status

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health psychologists

study how patients handle illness, why some people don't follow medical advice and the most effective ways to control pain or change poor health habits.

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40

industrial organizational (i/o) psychologists

study and assess individual, group and organizational dynamics in the workplace. They apply that research to identify solutions to problems that improve the well-being and performance of organizations and their employees.

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neauropsychologists

a healthcare provider who has specialized knowledge of how brain conditions affect your behavior and cognitive skills

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rehabilitation psychologists

assess and treat cognitive, emotional, and functional difficulties, and help people to overcome barriers to participation in life activities.

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school psychologists

help children succeed academically, emotionally, and socially

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44

sport psychologists

help athletes improve their performance.

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45

In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on ________, whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on ________.

childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes; current environmental influences on potential

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46

Which of the following broad domains can be studied by psychologists?Developmental processesBiological bases of behaviourSocial bases of behaviourCognitive and affective processesPsychologists can study all of these domains

Psychologists can study all of these domains

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47

In America, the first psychological laboratory was established by

william james

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48

Origins of psychology relate back to which culture

greece

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49

John Locke's Theory of ______ argued that you environment write upon the behavior and attitudes which you will become

blank slate

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50

The studying of twins is most fascinating to psychologists because:

twin studies are most useful in nature vs nurture debates

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51

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes

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52

The underlying issue revolving through all psychological issues studied is

nauture vs nurture

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53

Which perspective of psychology revolves around the idea that your thought process and logical awareness determines behavior?

cognitive

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54

Which perspective of psychology focuses on learning and the effects of ones environment?

behavioral

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55

Freud is best know for which of the following

unconscious mind, dreams and personality construct

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56

Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective

evolutionary

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57

theory

an explanation using an intergrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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58

hypothesis

a testable prediction often implied by a theory

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59

operational definition

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intellegence may be operationally defined as what an intellegent test measures

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60

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

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61

case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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62

naturalisitc obervation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

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63

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

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64

sampling bias

a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample.

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65

population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population.)

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66

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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67

Why is an operational definition necessary when reporting research findings?

An operational definition allows others to replicate the procedure.

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68

A researcher looking for gender differences in 3-year- olds observes a preschool class and records how many minutes children of each gender play with dolls. She then compares the two sets of numbers. What type of descriptive research is she conducting?

naturalistic observation

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69

Which of the following questions is best investigated by means of a survey?

Are students more likely to be politically liberal or conservative?

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70

A testable prediction that drives research is known as a(n)

hyopthesis

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71

Researchers are interested in finding out if winning Congressional candidates display more positive facial expressions than losing candidates. The researchers attend political debates and record how frequently each candidate displays positive facial expressions. Which research method are the researchers using?

naturalisitc observation

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72

An individual with an exceptional memory is identified. She is capable of recalling major events, the weather, and what she did on any given date. What research method is being used if a psychologist conducts an in-depth investigation of this individual including questionnaires, brain scans, and memory tests?

case study

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73

Which of the following is most important when conducting survey research?

choosing a representive sample

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74

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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75

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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76

debrefing

the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.

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77

Which of the following is more likely to be emphasized in individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures?a. Gender differencesb. Shared goalsc. Personal achievementd. Cooperation with the groupe. Preservation of tradition

c.) personal achievement

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78

What must a researcher do to fulfill the ethical principle of informed consent?

provides participants with a pre-experimental explanation of the study

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79

Which ethical principle requires that at the end of the study participants be told about the true purpose of the research?

informed consent

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80

Which of the following beliefs would most likely be held by an individual in a collectivist culture?

children should be encouraged to develop harmonious relationships

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81

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would of forseen it (AKA; i knew it all along phenonmenom)

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82

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, asseses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and asesses conclusions

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83

After the student council election, a friend tells you he has known for weeks who would be elected president. What does this seem to illustrate?

hindsight bias

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84

While taking a standardized test with randomly scrambled answers, you notice that your last four answers have been “c.” Which of the following is true concerning the probability of the next answer being “c”?

it is unaffected by previous answers. It is as likely to be “c” as any other answer

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85

What do we call the tendency to exaggerate the correctness or accuracy of our beliefs and predictions prior to testing?

overconfidence

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86

Which of the following is an example of hindsight bias?a. Tom is certain that electric cars will represent 80 percent of vehicles in twenty years and only reads research studies that support his hypothesis.b. Liza underestimates how much time it will take her to finish writing her college application essays and as a result fails to meet an important deadline.c. Experts predicting world events with 80 percent confidence turned out to be correct less than 40 per- cent of the time.d. Marcy cannot recognize a definition on a flashcard. After turning the card over and viewing the term, she tells herself she knew what the answer was all along.e. Dr. Grace overestimates how effectively her new treatment method works because she fails to seek out any evidence refuting her theory.

d. Marcy cannot recognize a definition on a flashcard. After turning the card over and viewing the term, she tells herself she knew what the answer was all along.

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87

correlate

a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other

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88

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two variables

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89

scatterplots

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates higher correlations)

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90

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

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91

experiment

a research method in which an invesitagor manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe the effct on some behavior or mental process (the DV). By random assingment of participants the experiments aims to control other relevant varibales

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92

experimental group

in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the indipendent variable

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93

control group

in an experiment the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparision for evaluating the effectt of the treatment

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random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between different groups

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95

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies

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96

placebo

effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

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97

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

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98

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

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99

dependent variable

the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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100

validity

the extent to which a test or experiment meaures or predicts what it is supposed to

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