Questions for Physiology Test 4

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

You and your team of mad scientists develop a drug to reduce the binding affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin. As a result the respiratory pigment will require a(n) ________ oxygen partial press in order for hemoglobin saturation to occur?

a. increased

b. decreased

c. no effect

1 / 118

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

119 Terms

1

You and your team of mad scientists develop a drug to reduce the binding affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin. As a result the respiratory pigment will require a(n) ________ oxygen partial press in order for hemoglobin saturation to occur?

a. increased

b. decreased

c. no effect

a. increased

New cards
2

Pulmonary expiration in mammals relies on which of the following changes in the anatomy of the thoracic cage?

a. diaphragm: relaxes and moves superiorly

b. intercostal muscles: relax to lower the ribs to reduce thoracic cavity

c. both changes in anatomy occur during expiration

d. neither change in anatomy occurs during expiration

e. both changes in anatomy occur during inspiration

c. both changes in anatomy occur during expiration

New cards
3

Alveolar pores are beneficial because they allow:

a. equalization of air pressure

b. provides alternate routes for air passage

c. warms, humidifies, and filters the air

d. a and b

e. all of the above

d. a and b

New cards
4

Gas molecules move down their concentration gradients. Which of the following statement(s) are correct?

a. oxygen will move from the cell’s mitochondria to outside the body

b. carbon dioxide will move from the cell’s mitochondria to outside of the body

c. oxygen will move from the outside of the body to the cell’s mitochondria

d. a and b

e. b and c

e. b and c

New cards
5

The curve on this graph demonstrates which of the following key concepts?

a. oxygen saturation

b. oxygen affinity to hemoglobin

c. partial pressures required to reach oxygen saturation

d. all of the above

e. none of the above applies to the graph

d. all of the above

New cards
6

T/F: Blood cells are mainly generated in the yellow bone marrow.

false

New cards
7

Which of the following is NOT true about thrombocytes and the blood clotting process?

a. RBCs get trapped within the clot because of fibrin threads

b. thrombin is the molecular scissors to cut fibrinogen into fibrin

c. adherence to exposed collagen at edges of tear

d. they are the cells involved in blood clotting

e. all the options are correct

d. they are the cells involved in blood clotting

New cards
8

Artificially increased in a patient’s hematocrit by blood transfusion will directly relate to ________ the patient’s ability to carry oxygen.

a. increasing

b. decreasing

c. no effect

a. increasing

New cards
9

T/F: Trachealis muscle -- smooth muscle that decreases the trachea diameter during swallowing, sneezing, and coughing.

true

New cards
10

During secretion, which of the following will be secreted into the peritubular capillaries?

a. drugs and drug metabolites

b. excess potassium and hydrogen ions

c. urea and uric acid

d. none of the options will be secreted into the peritubular capillaries

e. all of the options will be secreted into the peritubular capillaries

d. none of the options will be secreted into the peritubular capillaries

New cards
11

According to the Ideal Gas Law (P=nRT/v) and your knowledge of the Earth’s atmosphere, which of the following gases would exert the most pressure?

a. oxygen

b. nitrogen

c. helium

d. argon

b. nitrogen

New cards
12

T/F: Blood will become saturated with oxygen.

true

New cards
13

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?

a. filter toxins from the blood

b. filter excess water and ions from the blood

c. reabsorb water and ions back into the blood

d. b and c

e. all the options are functions of the kidney

e. all the options are functions of the kidney

New cards
14

According to the Haldene effect, which of the following statements accurately describes why deoxygenated blood carries more carbon dioxide than oxygenated blood?

a. H+ that are being produces by the bicarbonate reaction will be buffered by the red blood cells which will shift the reaction to the right and decrease the synthesis of bicarbonate to increase capacity of deoxygenated blood for carbon dioxide.

b. H+ that are being produced by the bicarbonate reaction will be buffered by the red blood cells which will shift the reaction to the right to increase the synthesis of bicarbonate to decrease the capacity of deoxygenated blood for carbon dioxide.

c. H+ that are being produced by the bicarbonate reaction will be buffered by the red blood cells which will shift the reaction to the left and increase the synthesis of bicarbonate to increase capacity of deoxygenated blood for carbon dioxide.

d. H+ that are being produced by the bicarbonate reaction will be buffered by the red blood cells which will shift the reaction to the right and increase the synthesis of bicarbonate to increase capacity of deoxygenated blood for carbon dioxide.

e. none of the above are correct statements.

d. H+ that are being produced by the bicarbonate reaction will be buffered by the red blood cells which will shift the reaction to the right and increase the synthesis of bicarbonate to increase capacity of deoxygenated blood for carbon dioxide.

New cards
15

Which of the following steps in urine production is described as adding additional substances from the peritubular capillary to tubule lumen to be included in the final urine filtrate?

secretion

New cards
16

When operating, the Na+/K+-ATPase pump will _____ the number of intracellular K+ ions?

increase

New cards
17

The proximal convoluted tubules composed of which of the following type(s) of epithelial cells?

cuboidal cells

New cards
18

Which of the following segments of the nephron will have its reabsorption ability changed by the endocrine system?

distal convoluted tubule

New cards
19

The importance of knowing and predicting which direction the oxygen equilibrium curve will shift can be summed up in which of the following statements?

a. A shift in the slope of the curve indicates homeostasis has been interrupted by outside factors and the body must alter ventilation to restore normal respiratory gas levels.

b. A shift in the slope of the curve indicates respiratory gas affinity levels have changed due to outside factors and the body must alter ventilation to restore normal respiratory gas levels.

c. both statements are correct

d. both statements are incorrect

c. both statements are correct

New cards
20

Anemia will alter a patient’s hematocrit to directly cause a _____ in a patient’s ability to carry oxygen.

decrease

New cards
21

During inspiration, the volumes of the lungs will ______.

increase

New cards
22

An increase in H+ ions will cause the oxygen equilibrium curve to shift to the _____ because the blood is more ______.

right, acidic

New cards
23

During expiration intrapulmonic pressures in the lungs will ______ forcing the air to flow out of the lungs.

increase (become more negative)

New cards
24

An increase in aldosterone will cause a(n) ____ in sodium reabsorption and a(n) _____ potassium reabsorption.

increase, decrease

New cards
25

_______ is defined as the pressure observed within the lungs.

intrapulmonic pressure

New cards
26

You and your dog, Bitzy, have just returned from a run. You notice that BItzy is panting. Using your knowledge about respiratory physiology, how do you explain Bitzy's panting response?

Blitzy is panting because she is hot and heat will decrease oxygen affinity and increase carbon dioxide affinity

New cards
27

Which of the following steps in urine production is described as forces pushing filtrate from the glomerular capillary into the tubule lumen?

filtration

New cards
28

__________ causes the passive filtration of fluids and solutes during glomerular filtration.

hydrostatic pressure

New cards
29

_______ pressures are less than pressures.

interpleural, intrapulmoic

New cards
30

As a clinical pathologist, you receive a kidney tissue sample. You notice the tissue has unique capillaries within the Bowman’s capsule. Which of the following types of capillaries would be found in your kidney sample?

fenestrated

New cards
31

These agranulocytes are found in the alveolar tissue and are highly mobile and actively phagocytic?

macrophages

New cards
32

According to the Law of Bulk Flow (Q=deltaP/R), an increase in alveolar resistance will the flow of air into the lungs.

decrease

New cards
33

Pigments that have a high affinity for oxygen will have a(n) oxygen partial pressures required for saturation

decrease

New cards
34

The is the inner layer covering the external surface of the lung.

visceral pleura

New cards
35

When operating, the Na+/K+-ATPase pump will the number of extracellular Na+ ions.

increase

New cards
36

According to the Ideal Gas Law (P=nRT/v), increasing the number of moles of a gas will the total pressure.

increase

New cards
37

Which of the following segments of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing water by osmosis?

descending loop on henle

New cards
38

According to the oxygen equilibrium curve, why is oxygen affinity measured at P50?

P50 represents the point at which 50% of the hemoglobin is saturated

New cards
39

Which of the following gases will have the highest affinity to hemoglobin?

carbon monoxide

New cards
40

________ causes the pulling of water back into the circulatory due to forces exerted by plasma proteins.

oncotic and osmotic pressure

New cards
41

What is the name of the process by which bicarbonate is removed from the erythrocyte cell?

chloride shift

New cards
42

The direction or net flux of molecules will always proceed from to concentrations.

higher, lowerWh

New cards
43

According to the Starling equation, what direction would the net fluid movement (Jv) be, if the hydrostatic pressures were equal to 20mm and the oncotic pressures were 40mm.

into the glomerular capillary

New cards
44

During reabsorption, the kidneys will recover mostly .

solutes and water

New cards
45

The is the outer layer covering the internal surface of the thoracic wall and superior surface of diaphragm.

parietal pleura

New cards
46

Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning or dilutional hyponatremia is often fatal result of extreme over-hydration without electrolyte replacement. Using your knowledge of renal physiology, over-hydration will the osmotic gradient of the renal medulla.

increase

New cards
47

_________ in the red blood cells there is a specific enzyme used to convert carbon dioxide to an easily transported form.

carbonic anhydrase

New cards
48

Upon a routine blood screen, you noticed your patient had a severely low blood pH or acidosis. Using your knowledge of renal physiology, how can you explain the findings of acidosis?

excretion of urea, uric acid, and hy

New cards
49

During expiration, the volume of the lungs will

decrease

New cards
50

According to the Starling equation, during filtration and reabsorption a will tend to move fluid into the uriniferous tubule (nephron) and a will tend to move fluid into the peritubular capillary.

positive pressure, negative pressure

New cards
51

Intrapleural pressures are atmospheric pressures (760mmHg or 1 torr)

less than

New cards
52

During inspiration, intrapulmonic pressures are atmospheric pressures.

equal to

New cards
53

According to the Starling equation, what direction would the net fluid movement be if hydrostatic pressures were equal to 30mm and the oncotic pressures were 20mm?

out of the glomerular cavity

New cards
54

An increase in blood pH will cause the oxygen equilibrium affinity curve to shift left. This shift in oxygen affinity equilibrium will cause a(n) in carbon dioxide affinity to hemoglobin.

decrease

New cards
55

_______ is the gas exchange between blood at systematic capillaries and tissue.

internal respiration

New cards
56

______ is defined as the difference between the thoracic cavity pressure and the lung pressure that will pull the small airways and alveoli open to prevent them from collapsing.

transpulmonary pressure

New cards
57

_______ is generated when the parietal and visceral layers are pulled in opposite directions.

intrapleural pressure

New cards
58

_____ is generated when the parietal and visceral layers are pulled in opposite directions.

intrapleural pressure

New cards
59

_______ is the gas exchange between blood and air alveoli.

external respiration

New cards
60

According to Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, decreasing the number of oxygen molecules will ______ its partial pressure

decrease

New cards
61

An increase in parathyroid will cause an ____________ in calcium reabsorption and an in phosphate excretion.

increase, increase

New cards
62

During inspiration intrapleural pressures in the lungs will ______ causing the air to flow into the lungs.

decrease (become more positive)

New cards
63

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding respiratory pigments?

respiratory pigments will have a low affinity for oxygen

New cards
64

The root effect is described as a(n) ______ in the oxygen carrying as erythrocytes move from an area of high pH to an area of low pH.

decrease

New cards
65

Organic modulators, such as 2,3-DPG, will be produce in response to anemia. Using the oxygen equilibrium curve, how will you predict the physiological respiratory response and binding to hemoglobin?

the curve will shift to the right indicating a decrease in oxygen affinity

New cards
66

Carbon dioxide is transported through the body in three different ways. Which of the following is NOT a transport mechanism?

a. plasma

b. red blood cells

c. carbaminohemoglobin

d. bicarbonate

e. all of the above are transporters of carbon dioxide

e. all of the above are transporters of carbon dioxide

New cards
67

Decrease in the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger will _______ in intracellular levels of bicarbonate within an erythrocyte

increases

New cards
68

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of hemoglobin?

hemoglobin irreversibly binds with oxygen

New cards
69

According to the Ideal Gas Law, increasing the temperature of a chamber will _____ the total pressure

increase

New cards
70

Place the following anatomical structures in order of urine formation starting glomerular capillary.

1. Bowman's capsule

2. Distal convoluted tubule

3. Proximal convoluted tubule

4. Descending loop of Henle

5. Ascending loop of Henle

6. Collecting duct

1, 3, 4, 5, 2, 6

New cards
71

Type II cells produce and secrete surfactant, a substance that will ______ the surface tension in the alveolar sacs and enhance respiration.

decrease

New cards
72

An increase in atrial natriuretic peptide will cause an increase in sodium excretion. Increase sodium excretion will cause a(n) ______ in urine excretion.

increase

New cards
73

A decrease in plasma carbon dioxide shifts the Haldane reaction to the left, causing bicarbonate levels to ______ within the red blood cell.

decrease

New cards
74

___ _ is the gas exchange between cell and mitochondria to convert glucose to ATP and carbon dioxide.

cellular respiration

New cards
75

An increase in vasopressin will cause a(n) in aquaporin translocation to urine production.

decrease, decrease

New cards
76

Upon a routine urine screen, your patient was tested positive for glucose in the urine (glycosuria). Your patient has no history of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia (elevated levels of blood glucose). Using your knowledge of physiology, how can you explain the results of increase excretion of glucose in the urine?

Reabsorption of glucose was decreased resulting in glycosuria.

New cards
77

At the respiratory surface, the PCO2 of the environment is lower than that of blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the plasma across the respiratory surface, this process causes a in plasma carbon dioxide levels.

decrease

New cards
78

According to the Ideal Gas Law of Partial Pressures, decreasing the number of oxygen molecules will its partial pressure.

decrease

New cards
79

According to the Ideal Gas Law, increasing the volume of a chamber will the total pressure.

decrease

New cards
80

Which of the following steps in urine production is defined as a recovery of a portion of the filtrate from the tubule lumen to the peritubular capillary?

reabsorption

New cards
81

A pneumothorax will cause a(n) in intrapleural pressure.

increase

New cards
82

According to the Starling equation, what direction would the net fluid movement be, if the hydrostatic pressures were equal to 20mm and the oncotic pressures were 20mm.

no net movement into or out of the glomerular capillary

New cards
83

Biological membranes are important in physiology because ______.

a. membranes separate intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid.

b. membranes regulate the enhance of products with the extracellular environments.

c. membranes create a level of control within the cells

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

New cards
84

_______ is initiated by a nervous reflex which causes the smooth muscle of the bladder walls to contract and expel urine.

micturition

New cards
85

If the sympathetic nervous system was activated, which of the following responses would occur?

decreased intestinal activity

New cards
86

As a pharmacist, it is your responsibility to dispense the proper medication and one of your patients was diagnosed with polyuria. An antidiuretic hormone would ______ urine production.

decrease

New cards
87

If temperature is increased, the movement of air molecules will ____ to cause the rate of gas exchange to .

increase, decrease

New cards
88

T/F: The glomerular capillary is a conventional capillary, meaning once the filtrate exits the blood, the capillary will empty blood into a venuole to begin its return back to the heart.

false

New cards
89

The main physiological function for the respiratory conduction zones is to…

a. filter air of foreign particles

b. humidifies and warms air

c. causes turbulent flow to prepare air for respiratory membrane

d. all of the above

d. all of the above

New cards
90

The distal convoluted tubule is composed of which of the following types of epithelial cells

a. cuboidal cells

b. squamous cells

c. principle cells

d. A and B

e. B and C

c. principle cells

New cards
91

T/F: Blood will become saturated with carbon monoxide

false

New cards
92

T/F: Blood will become saturated with carbon dioxide

false

New cards
93

You are given 100 erythrocytes each containing 100 hemoglobin molecules. How many molecules of oxygen are you able to bind to your sample?

a. 50000

b. 30000

c. 20000

d. 40000

e. 400000

d. 40000

New cards
94

According to the Haldane effect which of the following statements accurately describes why oxygenated blood carries less carbon dioxide that deoxygenated blood? \n a. Incoming oxygen will force H+ ions to be released from the red blood cells causing a drop in pH to shift the bicarbonate reaction to the left which reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that can be carried \n b. Incoming oxygen will force H+ ions to be released from the red blood cells causing a rise in pH to shift the bicarbonate reaction to the left which reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that can be carried

a. Incoming oxygen will force H+ ions to be released from the red blood cells causing a drop in pH to shift the bicarbonate reaction to the left which reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that can be carried

New cards
95

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?

a. filters toxins from the blood

b. filters excess water and ions from the blood

c. reabsorbs water and ions back into the blood

d. B and C

e. all of the above are functions of the kidney

e. all of the above are functions of the kidney

New cards
96

Which of the following steps in urine production is defined as voiding the final urine filtrate from the body?

a. filtration

b. reabsorption

c. secretion

d. excretion

d. excretion

New cards
97

According to the oxygen equilibrium curve, a decrease in temperature would carbon dioxide affinity.

increase

New cards
98

Which of the following segments of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing 66% of all filtered solutes and water?

a. proximal convoluted tubule

b. descending loop of Henle

c. ascending loop of Henle

d. distal convoluted tubule

a. proximal convoluted tubule

New cards
99

Blood leaves the heart in which branch repeatedly until they become .

arteries, capillaries

New cards
100

______ return blood to the heart

veins

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 117681 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(594)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard103 terms
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)