Bio A - Unit 1 Cumulative - Study Guide

studied byStudied by 37 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Independent Variable

1 / 55

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
56
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
56 Terms
1
New cards

Independent Variable

The variable that you change in an experiment ex. how much water the plant gets

New cards
2
New cards

Dependent Variable

The factor that you measure; that changes based on the independent variable ex. how tall the plant grows

New cards
3
New cards

Experimental Group

The group in which the independent variable is altered ex group that gets more water

New cards
4
New cards

Control Group

The group in which nothing is changed ex. the group that gets a normal amount of water

New cards
5
New cards

Constants

All the variables that you don't change exs. soil, type of plant, how much sun, etc

New cards
6
New cards

Parts of a graph

X axis (independent variable)Y axis (dependent variable) Title (says what the graph is about)Titles for the axis (with measurements where appropriate) KeyLegend (states obvious, does not interpret data)

New cards
7
New cards

Trendline (Line-of-best-fit)

Draw a circle around all the lines then draw a line with a ruler that divides the circle in half (ignore outliers). This is the average of the data.

New cards
8
New cards

Solute

Is the thing that the solvent is attracted to (like salt).

New cards
9
New cards

Solvent

Would be the water. Breaks apart the solute.

New cards
10
New cards

Covalent Bonds

Shares valance electors (outer shell). Sharing is caring.

New cards
11
New cards

Ionic Bonds

Stealing valence electrons but it benefits both. Results in one atom being positively charged and one atom being negatively charged. Two then attracted to each other like magnets.

New cards
12
New cards

Polar

Means there's uneven sharing of electrons. Example, water as the oxygen hogs the electrons. One end is electropositive and one end is electronegative. (note polar things dissolve other polar things)

New cards
13
New cards

Nonpolar

Means they're shared evenly. (note that nonpolar dissolve other nonpolar things)

New cards
14
New cards

Dehydration Synthesis

H2O is removed from the middle of the molecule, splitting it into two separate parts. Joins the two together at the middle makes a MEGA MOLECULE

New cards
15
New cards

Hydrolysis

To "lys" is to slice! Water is added from the outside and splits apart the molecule

New cards
16
New cards

Passive transport

Doesn't require energy (ATP). Follows the concentration gradient (high to low)

New cards
17
New cards

Simple Diffusion

Type of passive transport. Can be done by small, nonpolar molecules (water is the exception). Slips through the phospholipid bilayer to the other side

New cards
18
New cards

Facilitated Diffusion

Type of passive transport. Works on larger, charged, or polar molecules. Uses proteins (like channel proteins) to pass through the bilayer

New cards
19
New cards

Osmosis

Type of passive transport. Diffusion for water.

New cards
20
New cards

Hypertonic

A solution compared to another has more solute than solvent than the other one (more salt than water AKA it is more concentrated)

New cards
21
New cards

Hypotonic

A solution compared to another has more solvent than solute than the other one (more water than salt AKA it is less concentrated)

New cards
22
New cards

Isotonic

Equal amounts of something (water, salt, sugar, etc.). Equilibrium has been reached

New cards
23
New cards

Active Transport

Requires energy (ATP). Moves against the concentration gradient (low to high) if the cell needs it. For very big molecules that cannot do any passive transport

New cards
24
New cards

Protein pump (Has to do with active transport)

Protein is activated by ATP. ATP transforms to ADP. Opens up pathway, sucks molecules through

New cards
25
New cards

Endocytosis (Has to do with active transport)

They come in a large group, are enclosed by the membrane.Membrane breaks off when a circle is moved inside, forming a vacuole. Things are transported into the cell. For very big molecules

New cards
26
New cards

Exocytosis (has to do with active transport)

Things (like waste or value resources) are transported out of the cell. Vacuole reaches membrane, merges with it.Forces things out (or they stay in a vacuole still but not one connected to the membrane)

New cards
27
New cards

Eukaryotic (type of cell)

Has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

New cards
28
New cards

Eukaryotic Animal (type of cell)

Has only cell membrane. All membrane-bound organelles except cell wall and chloroplast. Smaller vacuoles

New cards
29
New cards

Eukaryotic Plant (type of cell)

Has cell membrane and cell wall. Chloroplasts with chlorophyll (photosynthesis). Large central vacuole

New cards
30
New cards

Prokaryotic (type of cell)

No nucleus. Are often bacteria. Has ribosomes, free floating DNA, cell membrane and wall, and cytoplasm

New cards
31
New cards

Nucleus

stores DNA

New cards
32
New cards

Nucleolus

Ribosome synthesis (makes mRNA into proteins)

New cards
33
New cards

Nuclear envelope (nuclear pores)

surrounds nucleus, controls what gets in or out of it

New cards
34
New cards

Rough ER

Has ribosomes, transports proteins.

New cards
35
New cards

Ribosomes

polypeptide chain synthesis. can be free floating.

New cards
36
New cards

Smooth ER

no ribosomes, lipid synthesis (creates lipids)

New cards
37
New cards

Golgi apparatus

Folds polypeptide chain into a protein, processes

New cards
38
New cards

Vacuole

storage

New cards
39
New cards

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell. Makes ATP

New cards
40
New cards

Cell membrane

controls what gets in or out of the cell (is semi-permeable)

New cards
41
New cards

Cell wall

stops plant cells from bursting

New cards
42
New cards

pH, acids and bases

Acidic has a pH of 0-6 (0 is the most acidic)7 has a neutral pH (water)Bases have a pH of 8-14 (14 is the most basic)

New cards
43
New cards

Buffers

Help maintain a constant pH level and homeostasis. (Buffers resist changes in pH). If the solution is too acidic, it has too many H+, and the buffer will take some in. If the solution is too basic, it doesn't have enough H+ and the buffer will release some

New cards
44
New cards

Feedback Loops

Helps Maintain homeostasis. Sensor detects a change in the body. The effector than responds to the change accordingly(Think a heater that warms the house when too cold and cools it when too warm)

New cards
45
New cards

asexual reproduction

Asexual is a genetic clone. Only requires one parent ("Copy machine")

New cards
46
New cards

sexual reproduction

Sexual requires two parents (Genetic diversity)

New cards
47
New cards

Mitosis

4 stages-Prophase Copies of chromosomes are formed-Metaphase Nuclear membrane disintegrates. Spindles attach to chromosomes-Anaphase Spindles pull chromosomes apart so there are 8, 2 pairs of 4-Telophase Nuclear membranes reform around the pairs, two nuclei in one cell Technically not a part of mitosis but:-Cytokinesis The cell actually splits into two smaller versions of itself

New cards
48
New cards

Interphase

G1 Growth phaseS DNA ReplicationG2 Second growth phase, mutation/issue check

New cards
49
New cards

Lipids

Found in cell membrane. Makes up the cell membrane, provides pigment, long term energy, keeps us warm

New cards
50
New cards

Proteins

Found in ribosomes. Builds Muscles and Cells, Acts as enzymes, Biological Catalyst, cellular work, helps run the body

New cards
51
New cards

Carbs

Found surrounding the membrane. Provides structure and short term energy for the body

New cards
52
New cards

Nucleic Acids

Found in RNA and DNA. Provides genetic codes, has instructions to make proteins, Makes up DNA+RNA

New cards
53
New cards

Endomembrane System

  • Starts in the Nucleus, ribosomes created in the nucleolus

  • DNA gets copied into RNA, the RNA leaves through the nuclear pores in the nuclear envelope

  • Travels through the rough ER, attaches to a ribosome

  • Ribosome reads the instructions, creates a polypeptide chain

  • Polypeptide chain travels to the Golgi Apparatus and is folded into a protein

  • Leaves (or stays) in the cell via a vesicle via exocytosis

New cards
54
New cards

Cancer

apoptosis

Cell has mutations but keeps dividing, not self destructed (apoptosis). Becomes cancer. It divides at abnormally high rates, causing it to grow fast. When it reaches the bloodstream, it can travel anywhere in the body.

New cards
55
New cards

apoptosis

when the cell self destructs due to a mutation that was detected

New cards
56
New cards

Lysosomes

Breaks apart things (to “lys” is to slice!!!)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 107 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(6)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 218 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard168 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)