PHYL 142 Final

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Pathogen

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276 Terms

1

Pathogen

something that causes and generates disease (bacteria, fungi, parasites)

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2

Innate immune system

System we are born with, include skin, mucus, sweat, tears, gastric acid, human microbiota

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3

Mucus

contains mucins, enzymes & defensins, trap/impede pathogen entry, neutralize pathogens

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4

Mucins

glycoproteins, thicken extracellular fluid, retain water, slow & impede pathogen movement

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5

Sweat

Acidic pH, high salt (hypertonic to pathogens), defensis, dermcidin

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6

Tears

Lysozyme, mucins, surfactants

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7

Gastric acid

In stomach, contains hydrochloric acid, denatures proteins, dissolves microbes or inhibits growth

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8

Human microbiota

Makes it difficult for pathogens to develop, secrete chemicals that impede pathogenic bacteria, crowd out other bacteria, compete for resources

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9

Steps of phagocytosis

Chemotaxis & adherece of microbe to phag, ingestion of microbe, formation of phagosome, fusion of phagosome with a lysosome forming a phagolysosome, digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes, formation of residual body containing indigestible material, discharge of waste materials

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10

Chemotaxis

movement of cells towards or away from chemical,

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11

Diapedesis

passage of blood cells through capillary walls, help RBCs as well as macrophages get to different parts of the body

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12

Complement proteins

mostly produced by liver, always circulating;remain inactive if not needed, activated by pathogens

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13

Complement protein functions

recruit macrophages, activate mast cell degranulation, can also attack pathogenic cells itself

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14

Interferons

Inc. antiviral defenses, inc. DNA repair, MHC-1 & MHC-2 presentation, NK cell activity & destruction of infected cells

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15

Interferon alpha

prod. by cells infeceted w viruses, attracts & stimulates NK cells & enhances resistance to viral infection

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16

Interferon beta

secreted by fibroblasts and slows inflammation in damaged area

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17

Interferon gamma

secreted by T & NK cells, stimulate macrophage activity

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18

Inflammation

bodily response to injury or disease in which heat, redness & swelling occur to eliminate harmful substances & repair damaged tissue

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19

4 signs of inflammation

Heat, pain, redness, swelling

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20

Histamine

Causes vasodilation, inc. vessel permeability, inc. fluids also leak, leading to heat, redness & swelling

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21

Fever

Pyrexia, add energy & speed up metabolism in immune cells, make body inhospitable for foregin bacteria, inhibit bacterial & viral enzymes, stresses out our body

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22

Pyrogens

Chemicals that cause the body to produce more heat, released by bacteria & immune cells

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23

Normal body temp range

96.8-99.5 F

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24

hypothermia

Temp < 95 F

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25

fever

Temp > 100.4

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26

hyperpyrexia

Temp > 104 F

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27

Neutrophils

Phagocytic, degranulation, promote inflammation & recruit other immune cells, form NETs, expendable

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28

Degranulation

release of toxic chemicals from cellular vesicles (granules)

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29

Defensins

enzymes that produce free radicals, degrade extracellular matrices,

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30

Pus

Thick opaque fluid, result from inflammation or infection, contain remnants of infection (proteins, pathogen remnants, cell 7 tissue debris, dead WBCs)

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31

NK cells

Innate cells, recognize abnormal cells, cause apoptosis,

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32

NK cell self tolerance

NK cells read MHC-1 of all cells, induces apoptosis on any infected or tumorous cells

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33

MHC- 1 & 2 location

found on surface of all cells

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34

MHC-1

Cells display their own proteins on MHC-1 receptors, serve as ID for cells

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35

MHC-2

Present extracellular antigens, displayed by pro APCs

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36

Professional APCs

Dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells

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37

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs)

Present antigens from foreign particles to T cells, so the body can learn how to respond to the invader, or alert T cells that a cell is compromised

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38

Cytotoxic T cells

Detect pathogen antigens, kill infected cells

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39

T helper cells

Support cells that phagocytize pathogens, tell cytotoxic T cells to activate & multiply, help macrophages become deadlier

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40

T regulatory cells

Protect self cells from cytotoxic T cells, important in immune self-tolerance

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41

B cells

Produce immunoglobulins, can create enormous variety of antibody binding sites, shuffle genes that make antibody lift & heavy chains

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42

Plasma cells

produce and secrete antibodies

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43

T&B memory cells

Record of past antigens, allow faster response to same antigen in future, prod. in primary response

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44

Secondary lymphoid organs

Sites where lymphocytes mount adaptive immune responses; examples include lymph nodes and spleen

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45

GI tract

runs from mouth to anus

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46

Mesentery

a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall, serve as scaffold for blood vessels

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47

GI tract organs

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

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48

Accessory organs (digestive)

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

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49

Mastication

chewing

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50

Saliva

1-1.5 L produced daily, 99% h20, fluids & digestive enzymes help digest food, normal pH range 6.35-6.85

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51

Enzymes in saliva

Salivary amylase, lingual lipase, immunoglobulins, lysozyme, peroxidases, defensins

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52

Teeth

Deciduous, incisors, canines, premolars, molars

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53

Deciduous teeth

baby teeth

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54

Permanent teeth

Replace baby teeth

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55

Incisors

Shaped like dull blades, slice food, 4 on top 4 on bottom

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56

Canines

Tears up food, 2 on top, 2 on bottom

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57

Premolars

8 total

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58

Molars

6 on top, 6 on bottom

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59

Deglutition (steps)

Bolus gets swallowed -> tongue pushes up against hard palate, soft palate is closed -> Hyoid pulls up & forward, epiglottis shuts

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60

Esophagus layers

Lumen, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia

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61

Peristalsis

series of wave-like involuntary contractions

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62

Muscle contraction during peristalsis

contraction of circular muscle -> contraction of longitudinal muscle

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63

regions of the stomach

Cardia, fundus, body, pylorus

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64

layers of muscularis externa (stomach)

(deep) Oblique, circular, longitudinal

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65

Parietal cells

prod. hydrochloric acid, secretes intrinsic factor,

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66

Intrinsic factor

protein which is important for absorption of vitamin B12

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67

Mucus cells

prod. mucus

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68

Chief cells

secrete pepsinogen

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69

Pepsinogen

needs to combine with hydrochloric acid to become pepsin (active), helps breakdown food molecules

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70

G cells

produce gastrin

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71

Gastrin

peptide hormone, increases stomach motility, stimulates acid & enzyme production

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72

Peptic Ulcers

Gastric acid eats away at stomach lining

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73

Common cause of peptic ulcers

Helicobacter pylori, invades mucosal layer, secretes proteases & toxins

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74

Mechanical digestion (stomach)

churning and mixing until food is a soupy liquid called "chyme"

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75

Hydrochloric acid

helps break down food in the stomach

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76

Duodenum

Where food first enters the intestines, produces gastrin

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77

Cephalic phase

thinking of food, inc. hunger, stimulating stomach

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78

Gastric phase

Gastric acid released stimulating prod. & release of other substances (HCL, mucus, pepsinogen)

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79

Intestinal phase

Bolus moves on into the intestines

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80

Secretin

Inc. pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate, Inc. bile production by liver

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81

Cholecystokinin (CKK)

Fatty acids & amino acids stimulate release, inhibits gastric emptying, inc. bile production, suppresses hunger, keeps food in stomach longer, more time to digest

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82

Glucose-dependent insluniotropic polypeptide (GIP)

Abnormally high GIP levels dec. gastric acid, stimulated by high glucose duodenal content, stimulates release of insulin

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83

Ileum

Thinner circular folds, smaller villi, absorbs vitamin B12 & bile acids, longest portion, contains peyer's patches

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84

Peyer's patches

clusters of lymphatic tissue around small intestine to monitor digestive system

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85

Lobes of the liver

Left lobe, caudate lobe, right lobe, quadrate lobe.

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86

lipoproteins

LDL, HDL, transport cholesterol, triglycerides & fats

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87

Coronary ligament

Anchors liver to diaphragm

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88

Blood flow through the liver

portal vein->portal venules->sinusoids->central venule->sublobular veins->hepatic veins->IVC

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89

Liver cells

Kupffer cells, hepatocytes,

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90

Kupffer cells

~80-90% of all resident (fixed) macrophages, Dispose pathogens, foreign particles & debris, Recycle cell debris & large molecules, release inflammatory cytokines

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91

Hepatocytes

~80% of the livers mass, prod. plasma proteins, Metabolize carbs, fats & lipids

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92

Bile

A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles, stored in gallbladder

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93

Porta hepatis

Where the hepatic portal vein, artery and common bile duct enter the liver

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94

Gallbladder

Stores & concentrates bile produced in the liver

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95

Pancreas

produces insulin and glucagon

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96

Pancreatic duct

Carries exocrine secretions of pancreas to duodenum

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97

Pancreatic acini

exocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the pancreatic duct; 99% of pancreatic cells

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98

Pancreatic islets

Secrete insulin & glucagon into the bloodstream

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99

Pancreatic juice

Exocrine secretion, basic pH, helps neutralize chyme, 1L prod. per day

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100

Pancreatic juice enzymes

Amylases, lipases, proteases, nucleases

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