chapter one introduction to the themes in the study of life

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what did darwin propose as the mechanism of evolution?

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1

what did darwin propose as the mechanism of evolution?

natural selection

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2

what is quantitative data?

recorded measurement

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3

what is a hypothesis?

logical explanation, rational accounting, tentative answer to a well framed question, prediction

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4

logical explanation, rational accounting, tentative answer to a well framed question, prediction

what is a hypothesis?

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5

what are the two important qualities that a scientific hypothesis has?

testable and falsifiable

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6

where is the difference between an experimental group and a control group?

variable of interest

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7

variable of interest

where is the difference between an experimental group and a control group?

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8

what are the seven properties?

order

evolutionary adaptation

response to environment

reproduction

growth and development

energy processing

regulation

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9

order

evolutionary adaptation

response to environment

reproduction

growth and development

energy processing

regulation

what are the seven properties?

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10

describe the property of order

life has a highly ordered structure

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11

describe the property of reproduction

organisms reproduce their own kind

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12

describe the property of evolutionary adaptation

adaptation evolves over generations by reproduction. those w certain heritable traits are best suited for their environment

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13

describe the property of response to environment

species respond to environmental stimulus

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14

describe the property of growth and development

inherited info carried by genes control the growth and development of organisms

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15

inherited info carried by genes control the growth and development of organisms

describe the property of growth and development

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16

describe the property of energy processing

species obtain fuel from plants and then use this chemical energy from the food to power its movements

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17

describe the property of regulation

certain mechanisms inside an organism regulate its health

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18

what are emergent properties?

new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life

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19

what causes emergent properties?

arrangements and interactions that emerge as complexity increases

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20

what is the biosphere?

crust of the earth and the life on it, life on a planet and the places it exists

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21

what is an ecosystem?

living things in an environment and the nonliving things in the environment that the life interacts w

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22

what is a community?

organisms in an ecosystem that belong to a species, population in an environment

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23

what is a population?

a species living in an environment

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24

what is a species?

group that can only reproduce w each other

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25

what is an organism?

living thing w one or more cells

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26

what is an organ?

part of an organism, body part

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27

what are tissues?

groups of cells that work together

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28

groups of cells that work together

what are tissues?

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29

what is a cell?

life’s fundamental unit of structure and function

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30

what do tissues do?

helps organ function

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31

helps organ function

what do tissues do?

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32

what is a molecule?

chemical structure

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33

chemical structure

what is a molecule?

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34

what can be done with molecules?

organized into systems to do jobs

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35

organized into systems to do jobs

what can be done with molecules?

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36

what is the atomic level?

atom and molecule

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37

what are the seven themes?

new properties emerge at each level in the hierarchy

continuity of life is based on heritable info in the form of dna

life requires energy transfer and transformation

structure and function are correlated at all levels of organization

the cell is an organism’s basic unit of structure and function

organisms interact with other organisms and the physical environment

feedback mechanisms regulate systems

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38

new properties emerge at each level in the hierarchy

continuity of life is based on heritable info in the form of dna

life requires energy transfer and transformation

structure and function are correlated at all levels of organization

the cell is an organism’s basic unit of structure and function

organisms interact with other organisms and the physical environment

feedback mechanisms regulate systems

what are the seven themes?

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39

what do the genes in the dna of a cell do?

guide the production and movements of proteins

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40

what is the makeup of a eukaryotic cell?

membrane enclosed organelles the largest of which is the nucleus

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41

membrane enclosed organelles the largest of which is the nucleus

what is the makeup of a eukaryotic cell?

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42

what is the makeup of a prokaryotic cell?

does not have a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles, simpler, smaller

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43

does not have a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles, simpler, smaller

what is the makeup of a prokaryotic cell?

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44

what is dna?

nucleic acid molecule, deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded helix, substance of gene, universal genetic language common to all organisms

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45

nucleic acid molecule, deoxyribonucleic acid, double stranded helix, substance of gene, universal genetic language common to all organisms

what is dna?

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46

describe the double stranded helix of dna

each polynucleotide strand has nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases adenine (a), cytosine (c), guanine (g), and thymine (t)

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47

each polynucleotide strand has nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases adenine (a), cytosine (c), guanine (g), thymine (t)

describe the double stranded helix of dna

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48

what can be done with dna?

replicated

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49

replicated

what can be done with dna?

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50

what does dna determine?

the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins

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51

what is a gene?

section of dna from a chromosome, individual unit of hereditary info with a nucleotide sequence, unit of inheritance

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52

section of dna from a chromosome, individual unit of hereditary into with a nucleotide sequence, unit of inheritance

what is a gene?

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53

where are genes found?

in dna and sometimes rna

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54

in dna and sometimes rna

where are genes found?

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55

what does genes do?

transmit info from parents to offspring, encode info for building proteins

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56

what is the genome?

genetic instructions, complete complement of an organism’s or virus’s genes, noncoding nucleic acid sequences

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57

genetic instructions, complete complement of an organism’s or virus’s genes, noncoding nucleic acid sequences

what is the genome?

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58

what is negative feedback?

loop where the response reduces the initial stimulus

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59

what occurs with negative feedback?

as more of a product accumulates the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced

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60

what happens with positive feedback?

as more of a product accumulates the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced, end product speeds up its own production

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61

what does evolution account for?

the unit and diversity of life

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62

what is done with dna?

inherited by offspring from their parents

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63

why is everything the way it is?

because it works

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64

what do viruses have?

dna

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65

what do chordates have?

backbone

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66

where is the only place life exists?

crust of the earth

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67

what provides everything we need?

sun

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68

what is in phylum chordata?

chordate

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69

chordate

what is in phylum chordata?

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70

what is in family ursidae?

bear

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71

bear

what is in family ursidae?

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72

what is in genus ursus?

great bear

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73

how is life organized?

three domains or groups

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74

what level of organization has the greatest diversity of organisms?

domain

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75

what level of organization has the least diversity of organisms?

species

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76

what are the eight levels of organization in order?

domain

kingdom

phylum

class

order

family

genus

species

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77

domain

kingdom

phylum

class

order

family

genus

species

what are the eight levels of organization in order?

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78

what is taxonomy?

branch of biology that names and classifies species or organisms into groups of increasing depth

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79

why has there been changes in the placement of certain groups in the recent years?

new molecular info

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80

new molecular info

why has there been changes in the placement of certain groups in the recent years?

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81

what kingdom is in domain archaea?

kingdom archaea

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82

what kingdom is in domain bacteria?

kingdom bacteria

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83

what kingdoms are in domai eukarya?

animal, plant, fungi and protist

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84

what two main points were articulated in darwin’s the origin of species?

species show evidence of descent with modification from common ancestors

natural selection is the mechanism behind descent with modification

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85

what is natural selection?

process where the individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other and over generations these individuals take up most of the population

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86

what does a twig indicate on an evolution tree?

a species that has an ancestor

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87

what does a branch point represent on an evolution tree?

where the descents diverge from a common ancestor

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88

what do scientists use in their study of nature?

two main forms of inquiry

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89

two main forms of inquiry

what do scientists use in their study of nature?

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90

what are the two main forms of inquiry?

exploration and observation

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91

what is data?

recorded observation, item of info

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92

recorded observation, item of info

what is data?

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93

what is scientific inquiry based on?

data

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94

data

what is scientific inquiry based on?

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95

what is qualitative data?

recorded description

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96

recorded description

what is qualitative data?

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97

what is quantitative data?

recorded measurement

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98

what type of data can be organized into graphs, tables and charts?

quantitative data

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99

what are hypotheses based on?

observation

assumption

data

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100

what are hypotheses guided by?

inductive reasoning

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