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attribution theory

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Psychology

188 Terms

1

attribution theory

we can attribute someone's behavior to their stable traits (dispositional/internal) or their situations (situational/external)

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fundamental attribution error

when analyzing behaviors, the tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personality traits

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attitudes

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

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4

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

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5

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent ex: if you are feeling insecure, act confident and you will start viewing yourself as confident

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6

peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness (mostly for unmotivated audience)

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7

central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts (more logical and intelligent audience)

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8

norms

rules for accepted and expected behavior

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9

conformity

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

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10

normative social influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval -complying/doing what's expected

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11

informational social influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality -doing something because you believe and accept it -persuaded

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12

obedience to authority

a tendency to comply with instructions from an authority

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13

Miligram's obedience study

obedience was highest when: -person was nearby and legitimate authority figure -research was supported by prestigious institution -victim was depersonalized or at a distance -no role models for defiance

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14

social facilitation

in the presence of others, improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks, and worsened performance on difficult tasks (yerkes-dodson)

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15

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

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16

deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity ex: ku klux klan

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17

group polarization

group discussions with like-minded others strengthen members' prevailing beliefs and attitudes

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18

groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

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19

individual power

power of the individual and the power of the situation interact.a small minority that consistently expresses its views may sway the majority.

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20

prejudice

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.

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21

stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

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22

discrimination

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

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23

just-world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

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24

ingroup

"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.

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25

outgroup

"them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

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26

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor our own group

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27

scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

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28

frustration-aggression principle

the principle that frustration creates anger, which can generate aggression

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29

social scripts

culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations

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30

genetic influence of aggression

genetic Y chromosome marker, alcohol

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31

neural influences of aggression

aggression is more likely to occur with frontal lobe damage

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32

biochemical influences of aggression

Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration; alcohol effect

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33

psychology of attraction

proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity

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34

mere exposure effect

the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure

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35

passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

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36

two-factor theory of emotion

emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal

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37

companionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

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38

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

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39

bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

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40

social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

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41

socialization norm

social expectation that prescribes how we should behave

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42

reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

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43

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

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44

social traps

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

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45

mirror-image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

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46

self-fulfilling prophecies

a belief that leads to its own fulfillment

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47

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

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48

personality

our characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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49

Frued's psychoanalytic theory

childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

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50

psychodynamic theories

human behavior is the dynamic interaction between unconscious and conscious minds

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51

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing (Freud used this)

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52

id, ego, superego

Frued's personality structure

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53

id

the unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges; survive, reproduce, aggress; operates on the pleasure principle, seeks immediate gratification

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54

ego

the conscious, "executive" part of personality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's impulses to bring long-term pleasure; contains perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories

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55

superego

the partly conscious part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations; strives for perfection

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56

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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57

oral

0-18 months, pleasure centers on the mouth; sucking, biting, cfhewing

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anal

18-36 months, pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

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59

phallic

3-6 years, pleasure zone of the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings.

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60

latency

6 years-puberty, dormant sexual feelings

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61

genital

puberty on, maturation of sexual interactions

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62

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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63

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

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64

fixate

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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65

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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66

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories; underlies all defense mechanisms

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67

regression

retreating to an earlier psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated ex: boy reverts back to oral comfort of thumb sucking on the first day of school

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68

reaction formation

switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites ex: someone's thats angry, acting overly happy

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69

projection

disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others ex: liar thinking everyone else is lying

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70

rationalization

offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions ex: alcoholic saying their just a social drinker

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71

displacement

shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person ex: girl kicks a dog after being put in time out

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72

denial

refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities ex: denying evidence of someone

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73

collective unconscious

Jung's theory that we all share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements

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74

terror management theory

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death

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75

projective test

tests ask test-takers to respond to an ambiguous image by describing it or telling a story about it

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76

humanistic theory

view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth

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77

trait theory

A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions; uses personality inventories

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78

person-centered perspective

people are basically good, and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normally; characteristics of a growth-promoting environment include genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

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79

unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

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80

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

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81

low

brain-activity scans of extraverts indicate that they seek stimulation because normal brain arousal is relatively _____

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82

introverts

_______ seek low levels of stimulation from their environment

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83

extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability

two personality dimensions

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84

big five factors

five factors that describe a personality; openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

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85

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context. emphasizes the interaction of people with their environment

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86

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment; different people choose different environments and personalities shape how people interpret and react to events

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87

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

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88

self-esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

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89

self-efficacy

one's sense of competence and effectiveness

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90

self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably; people accept more responsibility for good deeds rather than bad

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91

narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption

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92

defensive self-esteem

fragile; focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failures and criticism feel threatening

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93

secure self-esteem

less fragile, less contingent on external evaluations, and more likely to achieve a greater quality of life

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94

psychological disorder

disturbance in a person's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

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95

medical model

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

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96

DSM-5

describes disorders and estimates their occurrence

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97

phobias; major depressive disorder

the symptoms of _______ appear around age 10, ___________ tends to appear around age 25.

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98

anxiety disorders

distressing, persistent anxiety or dysfunctional anxiety-reducing behaviors

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99

generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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100

panic disorder

an anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror

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