Studied by 34 people

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1

triple covalent bond

a covalent bond sharing six electrons

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2

Metalic bonds

A

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3

Wavelength

the distance from one point to the next similar point.

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4

Amplitude

The distance from the origin to the crest or the trough on a wave.

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5

Frequency

the number of waves to pass in a period of time.

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6

Electromagnetic spectrum

range of all electromagnetic radiation

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7

Electromagnetic waves

radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, cosmic rays, gamma rays

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8

Photons

packets of light. each frequency carries its own specific amount of energy (quantized).

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9

E=hv

Equation for energy

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10

3x10^8

Speed of light

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11

c=lv

speed of light equation

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12

Bright-light spectrum

each element when excited will give off light and when refracted it will have its own distinct separate lines of color, each with its own frequency.

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13

l (lamda)

wavelength symbol

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14

h

planks constant symbol

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15

v

frequency symbol

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16

c

speed of light symbol

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17

ground state

when electrons are in its lowest energy configuration

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18

excited atoms

atoms that have absorbed a specific amount of energy. electrons have been bumped up to upper energy levels and are unstable.

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19

ionization energy

the energy required to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of gas atoms.

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20

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

we don’t know the momentum or position of a particle.

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21

Orbital

an area of high probability of finding an electron

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22

n, l, m, s

quantum numbers (letters)

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23

energy level

principal (first) quantum number

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24

sublevels

the shape of an orbital

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25

s, p, d, f

sublevels (listed)

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26

double lobes

shape of a P orbital

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27

circular

shape of s orbital

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28

sublevels

second quantum number

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29

orientation around the x, y, z axes

third quantum number

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30

spin

fourth quantum number

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31

hund’s rule

electrons fill one orbital at a time (only two electrons in one orbital) with opposite spin

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32

Cr, Cu

Hund’s rule exceptions

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33

Electron configuration

the procedure of organizing electrons in atoms from the orbital with the highest energy. assumed to be in the ground stateAufbau principle

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34

shielding effect

inner electrons block outer electrons therefore the larger the atom, the more ______

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35

Aufbau principle

electrons fill one sub level to the next.

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36

valance electrons

electrons in the outer energy level

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37

4s1 3d10

Cu last two terms of e configuration

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38

4s1 3d5

last two terms of Cr configuration

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39

core electrons

electrons that are not in the outer energy level

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40

Pauli exclusion principle

no 2 electrons can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.

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41

Atomic radius

1/2 the distance between two nuclei of two like atoms in a solid crystal

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42

electronegativity

the attraction that an atom has between a shared pair of electrons and its positive nucleus.

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43

e affinity

energy change for adding an electron to an atom in a gaseous state

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44

Ionic bonds

B

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45

1000s of covalent bonds

C

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46

Intermolecular force

D

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47

Cu, Ag, K, Pb

E

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48

NaCl, MgSO4,

F

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49

Graphite, glass, diamonds

G

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50

Ice, dry ice, sugar, organic solid

H

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51

High

I

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52

High

J

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53

High

K

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54

low

L

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55

Yes

M

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56

No

N

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57

Graphite-yes, diamond-no

O

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58

No

P

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59

crystal lattice, metallic bond, network covalent, molecular

4 types of crystal solids

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60

Crystal lattice

a regular and repeated structure. organized

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61

ionic bonds

an electrostatic attraction due to opposite charges

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62

Metallic bond

an attraction of positive ions to a sea of electrons

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63

Network covalent

crystal in which thousands of atoms are covalently bonded to each other. giant molecule

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64

molecular

solid held together by weak intermolecular forces

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65

valence electrons

electrons in the outer or highest occupied energy level

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66

lewis dot structures

shows valance electrons as dots

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67

octet rule

atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons in order to have the same configuration as the closest noble gas.

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68

covalent bond

an attraction of a shared pair of valence electrons to the positive nuclei.

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69

single covalent bonds

a covalent bond sharing two electrons

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70

double covalent bonds

a covalent bond sharing four electrons

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71

unshared electrons

orbitals of electrons, usually in pairs, not shared b/w two atoms

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72

resonant structures

two or more valid electron dot formulas for a single molecule

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73

sigma bond

bonding orbitals that overlap head to head. there is one _____ in either a single, double, or triple bond

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74

pi bond

bonding orbitals that overlap side by side. occur in double and triple bond

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75

Valence shell electron pair repulsion

VSEPR acronim meaning

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76

VSEPR

orbitals of electrons, bonding and nonbonding, will move geometrically as far away from each other as possible.

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77

linear

A

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78

trigonal planar

B

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79

bent

C

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80

tetrahedral

D

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81

trigonal pyramidal

E

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82

bent

F

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83

180

G

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84

120

H

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85

less than 120

I

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86

109.5

J

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87

greater than 109.5

K

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88

less than 109.5

L

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89

LDF

M

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90

LDF

N

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91

LDF, Dip-dip, h-bond

O

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92

LDF

P

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93

LDF, Dip-dip, h-bond

Q

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94

LDF, Dip-dip, h-bond

R

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95

NP

S

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96

NP

T

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97

polar

U

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98

NP

V

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99

polar

W

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100

polar

X

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