Social Psychology: Chapter 8-10 Review

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Group

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49 Terms

1

Group

Two or more people who for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence each other and perceive one another as "we" or "us"

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Reasons for Groups:

  • Need to affiliate

  • Need to achieve

  • Need for social identity

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3

Functions of Groups:

  • Belonging

  • Intimacy

  • Generativity

  • Support

  • Influence

  • Exploration

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4

Belonging

To be included in an interpersonal network, providing members with sense of inclusion and security

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5

Intimacy

To be in proximity, for warm, supportive, loving relationships with others

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6

Generativity

To be more productive and efficient than as a member than as an individual, accomplishing tasks that could not be completed alone

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7

Support

To be aided with minor/major life crisis by providing assistance, emotional and tangible resources

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8

Influence

To exercise and apply social power and __, offering individuals the means to __ greater numbers of individuals

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9

Exploration

To be provided with information, new ideas and new experiences, providing opportunities for learning

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10

Social Facilitation

Strengthening of dominant responses in presence of others, boosting performance on easy tasks and well learned tasks

EX) Home Court Advantage

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11

Social Loafing

People exerting less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they're individually accountable

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12

Causes of Social Loafing:

  • Diffusion of responsibility

  • Reduced evaluation apprehension

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13

Deindividuation

Loss of self awareness; a self conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself and makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions

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14

Risky Shift Phenomena

AKA Group Polarization; enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies, a strengthening of member's average tendency

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15

Explaining Polarization:

  • Informational Influence

  • Normative Influence

  • Pluralistic Ignorance

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16

GroupThink

Consensus in group decisions that suppresses dissent in the interest of group harmony

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17

*CAUSES of GroupThink:

  • Cohesion of the group

  • Isolation of group from dissenting viewpoints

  • Directive leader/Dictative leader

  • Decision stress

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*SYMPTOMS of GroupThink

  • Illusion of invulnerability

  • Strong belief in group's morality

  • Rationalization

  • Group has stereotyped view of opponent

  • Conformity pressure

  • Self censorship

  • Illusion of unamity

  • Mind guards

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19

Difference between Self Censorship and Mind Guards:

Self Censorship is not saying your opinion because it doesn't align with the group. Mind Guards are people who knowingly withhold information that could add to or dissuade the argument.

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20

Ways to prevent GroupThink:

  • Appointing a Devil's Advocate

  • Impartiality

  • Encourage critical evaluation

  • Occasionally divide the group, then reunite to air differences

  • Welcome input from outside experts

  • Call a second-chance meeting

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21

Influences of the Minority are strongest when:

  • Consistency in presentation of the message

  • Self confidence in message

  • Defections from the majority

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22

Task Leaders

Organize work, set standards, focus on goals

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23

Social Leaders

Delegate authority, encouraging input from the group

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Transformational Leaders

Inspires followers at a deep personal level; charisma

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25

Group Privilege

Unearned, favored, State acquired power by a group or groups in a society

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26

Prejudice equals __

Attitude

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27

Stereotypes equals __

Beliefs

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28

Discrimination equals __

Behavior

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29

Sexism

Social attitudes and discrimination towards people of a given sex

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30

Racism

Social attitudes and discriminatory Behavior people of a given race

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In-group Favoritism Phenomenon

Develops socially to where we have favoritism to the group you are assigned without any other connections

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Social Dominance Orientation

Motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups

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33

Socialization

Values and attitudes learned from family and culture

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34

Scapegoat Theory (Displaced Aggression)

Taking anger and frustration out on the cause of the frustration if possible and if unsuccessful displacing that anger towards a less-threatening target, like minorities

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35

Realistic Group Conflict Theory

Prejudice arises from groups competing for scarce resources

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36

Social Identity Theory

Feeling superior to others

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37

In-group Bias

Favor towards one's own group

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38

Out-group Homogeneity Effect

View out-group members as more similar to one another than in group members

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39

Just-world Phenomenon

Belief people get what they deserve and deserve what they get, contributes to victim-blaming

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40

Stereotype Threat

Proposition that stigmatized group members are aware that they are stereotyped and when in achievement settings they fear confirming those stereotypes

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41

Aggression

Physical and/or verbal behaviors intended to cause harm

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Biological Theories of Aggression:

Genetic Factors Instinct Theory Neural Influences Biochem Influences

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43

Media Impact on Aggressive Behavior:

Distorts perceptions of sexual reality Increases aggression against women Desensitizes us to violence Provides a social script Alters perception of the world Cognitive priming of aggression Disinhibits viewers Increased arousal Decrease prosocial behavior Decrease empathy/helping

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44

Group Contexts Enabling Aggression:

Diffusion of responsibility Polarization Social Identity Reduced inhibition Less self awareness Less evaluation apprehension

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45

Predictors of Aggressive Behavior:

Male Aggressive prone personality Alcohol use Violence viewing Anonymity Provocation Presence of weapons Group interaction

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46

Weapons Effect

The mere presence of weapons increases aggressive thoughts and behaviors

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47

Aggression Cues

Typically a physical object or context associated with aggressive acts that by existing increases violent thoughts/behaviors

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48

Catharsis

Acting aggressively or even viewing aggression is an effective way to purge angry and aggressive feelings

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49

Social Learning Approach

Suggests that social behavior is learned by observing and imitating the behavior of others

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