ENVS 200 - Final Exam (Key Terms)

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Metapopulations

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LEC 6-10

96 Terms

1

Metapopulations

Isolated populations that are connected by immigration and emigration

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Disturbance

Temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced changed in an ecosystem

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3

Primary Succession

Sequence of ecosystem development without influence from prior community

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4

Secondary Succession

Sequence of ecosystem development with influence from prior community

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5

Climax

Final stage of succession that is thought to be self-replacing and stable

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6

Food Web

What-eats-what in an ecological community

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7

Trophic Cascades

Predators suppress the abundance or alter the behaviour of their prey, releasing the next trophic level from predation

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8

Gap

Inadequate ecological conditions caused by disturbances

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9

Founder-Controlled Community

Communities where all species are good colonists and essentially equal competitors Prio

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10

Priority Effect

Species that arrive first at a site are able to hold it against competing invaders, whatever the outcome would be if they competed as simultaneously arriving equals

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11

Dominance-Controlled Community

Communities where some species are strongly superior competitively

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12

Community Succession

Early species are good colonizers and fast growers whereas later species can tolerate lower resource levels and grow to maturity, eventually outcompeting the early species

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13

Chronosequence

Series of communities currently in existence; Can be used to infer what the succession must have been

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14

Trophic Level

Position that an organism occupies in the food web Su

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15

Super Predator

Humans

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16

Top-Down Control (Predator Controlled)

Populations of organisms in lower trophic levels are controlled by organisms at the top

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17

Bottom-Up Control

Driven by the presence or absence of the producers in the ecosystem

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18

Meta-Analysis

Structured analyses of large numbers of data sets wtiha. view to discerning consistent trends

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19

Biological Diversity

Variability among living organisms from all sources (includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems)

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20

Biodiversity

Degree of variation in life

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21

Species Richness

Refers to the no. of unique species

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22

Species Eveness

Amount of each species in a communtiy and how evenly the species are distributed

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23

Hot Spots

Localiteis known to support a large number of species of a specific favoured group Ec

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24

Ecoregions

Broad-brush areas delineated by geogaphy and vegetation

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25

Diversity Index

Measures that combine species richness and the evenness of the equitability of the distribution of individuals among those species

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26

Evenness

Distribution of abundance across species in a community

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27

Niche Breadth

Diversity of resources used or environments tolerated by an individual/species

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Niche Overlap

Situation in which co occurring species share parts of their niche space with each other

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29

Productivity Hypothesis

Emphasizes the importance of climate in determining productivity at the lowest trophic level

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30

Energy Hypothesis

Emphasizes the direct role of energy on organisms throughout the community

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31

Eutrophication

Conditions that occur when environment becomes enriched with nutrients, increasing amount of plant growth in waters

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32

Particulate Organic Matter

Rain of chemical energy falling as dead organic matter from the sea surface

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33

Alpha Diversity

Diversity at a local scale

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34

Beta Diversity

Differences among communities within a region

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35

Upsilon Diversity

Diversity at the whole regional scale; Alpha + Beta diversity

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36

Potential Evapotranspiration

Amount of water that would evaporate or be transpired from a staured surface and hence, a measure of atmospheric energy

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37

Net Primary Productivity

Amount of carbon retained in an ecosystem

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38

Benthic

Anything associated with or occuring on the bottom of a body of water

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39

Predictable Variation

Variation that occurs on a time scale similar to the generation time of the species in a community themselves

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40

Unpredictable Changes

Most naturally viewed as disturbances to a community that changes its composition

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41

Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis

Communities are expected to contain most species when the frequency of disturbance is neither too high or too low

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42

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Conservation of mass or energy

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43

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

In an isolated system, entropy never decreases

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44

Entrophy

Unavailability of a systems energy to do mechanical work

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45

Trophic Transfer Efficiency

= CE x AE x PE

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46

Immobilization

Inorganic nutrient element is changed into an organic form

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47

Mineralization

Conversion of elements from organic form to inorganic form

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48

Decomposition

Gradual disintegration of dead organic matter by both physical and biological agents

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49

Standing Crop

Bodies of living organisms within a unit area constitute a standing crop of biomass

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50

Biomass

Mass of organisms per unit area of ground or water, usually expressed in units of energy

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51

Primary Productivity

Rate at which biomass is produced per unit area or volume through photosynthesisG

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52

Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)

Total fixation of energy by photosynthesis

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53

Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

Difference between GPP and energy lost as respiratory heat; Represents actual rate of production of new biomass available for consumption

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Secondary Productivity

Rate of production of biomass by heterotrophs

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Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP)

Difference between GPP and respiration of all organisms in an ecosystem

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56

Live Consumer System

Proportion of primary production is consumed by herbivores which are then consumed by carnivores

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Decomposer System

Fraction of NPP that is not eaten by herbivores passes through this system

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Detritus

Dead organic matter

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Decomposer

Organisms which decompose detritus

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60

Detrivore

Animals that consume detritus

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Leibig's Law of the Minimum

Fact that one particular element (usually either N or P), can limit productivity

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Colimitation

Phenomenon where in some ecosystems, both N and P are limiting to production

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63

Transfer Efficiences

Proportions of net primary production flowing along each of the possible energy pathways depend on these

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Consumption Efficiency

Percentage of total productivity available at one trophic level that is consumed by the trophic level above

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Assimilation Efficiency

Percent of food energy taken into consumers in a trophic level that is assimilated across the gut wall and becomes available for incorporation into growth or to do work

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Productive Efficiency

Percentage of assimilated energy incorporated into new biomass

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67

Biogeochemistry

Science that addresses the biotic controls on chemistry of the environment and the geochemical control of the structure and function of ecosystems

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Source Sink

Refers to sites of such storage of an element

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69

Radiative Forcing

Imbalance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation that results in global warming

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70

Residence Time

Expresses how fast something moves through a system in equilibrium

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71

Methanogenesis

Production of methane by bacteria in the absence of oxygen

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Conservation

Collective name given to various actions we can take to slow down or reverse losses of species and biodiversity

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73

Critically Endangered

Considered to be more than 50% probability of extinction in 10 years or three generations

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74

Endangered

If there is more than 20% chance of extinction in 20 years or five generations

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75

Vulnerable

If there is a greater than 10% chance of extinction in 100 years

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Near Threatened

If the species is close to qualifying for a threat category

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Of Least Concern

Species that do not meet any threat categories De

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78

Homozygous

Identical alleles from mother and father

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Inbreeding Depression

Deleterious effects that result from having homozygous alleles

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Overexploitation

Populations are harvested at a rate that is unsustainable, given natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction

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Invasive Species

Organism that is not native to an area

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82

Extinction Vortex

Population may have been reduced to a small size by 1+ processes which leads to increased frequency of mating among relatives and deleterious recessive alleles in offspring, leading to reduced survivorship and fecundity and causing population to further shrink

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83

Lichen

Mutualism of a fungus and an algae

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84

Poikilohydric Organisms

Absorb water from their environment straight through their cortex

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85

Combined Sewer Overflow

Pipe that, during storms, discharges untreated wastewater from a sewer system that carries both sanitary wastewater and stormwater; No longer used

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86

Constraint Planning

Landscape is viewed as having cultural and historic features, and abiotic and biotic features which provide both constraints and opportunities for development.

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87

Groundwater

Created by rain that soaks into the ground and flows until it collects above an impervious zone

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88

Aquifer

Volume of porous rock of unconsolidated deposits that can store ground water

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89

Riparian Zone

Zone of transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial zone

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90

Runoff

The amount of precipitation not absorbed into the ground that flows into surface water bodies or into the storm sewer system

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91

Sanitary Sewer

A sewer used to collect used water from buildings including sewage and grey water

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92

Storm Sewer

A sewer used to collect runoff from streets, roofs and parking lots

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93

Stormceptors

Special manholes along storm sewers that remove oil & pollutants from the water.

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94

Storm Water Management Pond (SWM Pond)

Provides storm water flow control, recharges groundwater, and improves water quality by enhancing removal of pollutants.

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95

Urban Heat Isalnd

Where there are higher temperatures in a built-up environment, for example a city, due to human activity –highly reflective surfaces, automobile exhaust, buildings, etc., when compared to rural areas.

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96

Watershed

All the land and tributaries draining to a body of water.

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