Envi Sci - Food and Materials

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Drip irrigation

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1

Drip irrigation

Dripping water onto soil at very low rates from a system of small diameter plastic pipes fitted with outlets called emitters or droppers, efficient - only 5% water lost to evaporation and runoff

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Drip irrigation environmental problems

Salts build up at the perimeter of wetted areas; such minerals aggravate most root – rot organisms

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3

Flood irrigation

farmers flow water down small trenches running through their crops

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4

Flood irrigation environmental problems

Flood irrigation flushes soils of dissolved salts that plants do not absorb; if not removed, high soil salinity can be detrimental to plant growth in their ability to absorb moisture, 20% water lost to evaporation and runoff, water-logging (too much water left to sit in soil and plants are left unable to absorb oxygen)

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Furrow irrigation

furrows are small, parallel water channels, made to carry water in order to irrigate the crop. The crop is usually grown on the ridges between the furrows

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Furrow irrigation environmental problems

Furrow irrigation triggers environmental problems of deep percolation, runoff, and soil erosion, 1/3 lost to evaporation and runoff

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7

Spray irrigation

Applying water in a controlled method similar to rainfall and is sprayed out of pipes or tubes

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8

Spray irrigation environmental problems

Deep ruts can form on clay soils from center pivot tires and it wastes water, 1/4 water lost to runoff and evaporation

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9

Monoculture

The cultivation of a single crop on agricultural and forest land. Ex; lawns, fields of wheat or corn, apple orchard

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10

Monoculture environmental problems

Upsets the natural balance of soil‘s, to many of the same plant species in one field area robs the soil of its nutrients and results in decreasing biodiversity. No variation in crops may lead to the destroying of that crop as a whole.

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11

Factory Farming environmental problems

Mass environmental damage, high levels of pollution by releasing many gases toxic to the atmosphere, deforestation, soil depletion, compromised animal welfare (well-being), increased public health risks

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12

Factory farm

System of raising livestock using intensive methods where they are confined indoors under strictly controlled conditions - sometimes to where they cannot even turn around

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13

CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation)

Agricultural meat, dairy, or egg facilities where animals are kept and raised in confined and poor situations

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14

Conservation tillage

any method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year‘s crop residue on fields before and after planting the next crop; reduces soil erosion and runoff

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15

crop rotation

Crop rotation is the systematic practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons; improves soil structure and fertility by alternating deep – rooted and shallow – rooted plants, gives various nutrients to soil, mitigates the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs one species is continuously planted

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16

Contour plowing

method of plowing long narrow trenches that follow the curves of the land rather than straight up and down slopes; minimizes soil erosion, improves soil quality, regulates runoff

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Strip cropping

Cultivation method in which different crops are planted in alternate strips; prevents soil erosion

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18

Terracing

Process of cultivating crops on the sides of hills or mountains by planting on terraces - terraces are pieces of sloped plane that have been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms; affective farming, decreases erosion and surface runoff, may be used to support growing crops that require irrigation

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19

Shelterbelts

One or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner to protect an area, such as a farm field, from strong winds and erosion; provide shelter, can reduce cost of heating and cooling and save energy

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20

Free range

A method of raising farm animals where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours each day; animals are able to move around instead of being enclosed

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21

Certified organic

certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural product; avoidance of genetic modification and synthetic chemical inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides

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22

Drip irrigation environmental benefits

Saves water and fertilizer

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23

Amount of arable land on the planet

About 1/32

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24

Legumes

Soil-enhancing plant that is important in crop rotation because it has the ability to add excess nitrogen into soil

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25

Arable land

Any land capable of being plowed and used to grow crops

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26

Agriculture (specifically irrigation) accounts for what percent of US freshwater use?

70 %

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27

Organic farming

Farming free of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, sewage sludge, growth hormones, antibiotics for animals, GMO‘s, irradiation. Crop rotation is used and conditions must mimic natural conditions. Characteristics must be met for 3 years to be certified. Farm size, free range, food safety, and work conditions do not matter.

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28

GMOs

(also called transgenic organisms) an organism that contains genetic info from another organism as its DNA has been altered using genetic engineering techniques, gene combination that would never occur in nature; enhances biodiversity, cuts back on pesticide use, helps alleviate world hunger and malnutrition, vaccines and medicines, lower food prices — unnatural call mom irreversible, environmental risk, allergies

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29

Food deserts

Communities were residents have a difficult time purchasing affordable, quality, and fresh foods often due to a lack of local supermarkets or affordable price variations - results in having little to no access to nutritious foods and is predominant in communities of people that are low income and of color; results in health conditions such as obesity and diabetes

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30

Cell-based meats

Meet produced using animal cell culture technology - meat is produced from building blocks of muscle and organs to begin process of creating cultured meat: cells are placed in petri dishes with amino acids and carbohydrates to help the muscle cells multiply and grow

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31

Cell and plant based meats environmental impact

Sustainable compared to modern eat production as it reduces global emissions from food production because it uses less land, water, and nutrients and has significantly less green house gases released, more efficient production

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32

Plant-based meat

meats based directly from plants: fully made from plants, but consisting of fat, minerals, protein, water, and vitamins to look and taste like meat

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33

Green revolution

A shift in agricultural practices in the 20th century that included new management techniques, recognization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, that resulted in increased food output

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34

Fishery

A unit determined by an authority that is engaged in raising and/or harvesting fish, defined in terms of people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats and purpose of the activity — refers to all fishermen who fish a specific species in a specific location

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35

Bycatch

Unintended or non-target marine organisms caught when fishing, usually die – thrown back into ocean dead

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36

Gill Net

Long rectangle nets anchored onto ocean floor, buoyed at surface, fish swim into nets and are trapped — giant tennis net appearance; bycatch

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37

Traps

Baited traps lowered on the ocean floor to attract and catch certain organisms (specifically catches benthic organisms which are those on the bottom of the ocean); habitat damage and destruction

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38

Long line fishing

Long line of beaded hooks on back of boats, over 50 miles long (can be up to 80), thousands of hooks; lots of bycatch including seabirds

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39

Trawl nets aka Otter trawls

Towing net behind boat, funnel shaped nut, through water column, drags along sea floor; destroys sea floor

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40

Dredge aka scallop dredge

Heavy net dragged along ocean floor to collect bottom dwelling organism; habitat destruction, water pollution

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41

Dropline fishing

Vertical baited fishing line that hangs in water column; some damage to sea floor and some bycatch

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42

Seine Nets aka Purse Seine Net

Large fence-like net that encircles school of fish, pulls closed like drawstring bag; large amount of bycatch - mass death and imbalance in marine ecosystems

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43

Aquaculture

“farming” of freshwater or salt water organisms, fenced off marine habitat (in-water operations), there are also land-based tanks; great for raising herbivores, bad for raising carnivores

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44

Aquaculture cons

Overuse of chemicals antibiotics and practices, untreated seawater flows freely into pens, diseases and fish farms spread to wild fish, large numbers escape and genes are passed to wild animals

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45

Aquaculture benefits

Increases food production, keeps waterways clean, decreases poor affects of consumption of fish on water habitats as food is produced without taking away from and further depleting overfished environments, does not rely on natural resources, allows overfished environments to restore habitats and rebuild populations of threatened and endangered species, boosts economic growth because of increased food production, great work opportunities for citizens

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46

Fishing : Tragedy of the Commons

Overfishing - the rate of commercial fishing exceeds the rate of fish reproduction - in marine habitats where access is open/public

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47

Land Use

60% of US land is private, 40% of US land is public

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48

Deforestation

Clearing wide areas of trees to provide for grazing: result of ongoing forest degradation, clearcutting, climate change, agriculture, unsustainable forest management mining, infrastructure projects

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49

marine mammal protection act

Ensures safety and protection of marine animals by prohibiting the taking and using of marine mammals in harassment, hunting, capturing, collecting, and killing in US waters; reduces likelihood of depletion of marine organisms

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50

Forest ecosystem services

Area for recreation, lumber source, carbon sinks, prevent erosion, air, fuel, fiber

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51

Tree/lumber products

Paper, food, building materials, rubber

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52

tree logging

Cutting trees for sale as timber, through methods of clear cutting, shelterwood, and selection systems; climate change, desertification, soil erosion, flooding, increased gas emissions

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53

Clearcutting

Removing all trees, planting all trees of the same size (tree plantation - bad for biodiversity)

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54

Shelterwood harvesting

Between clear cutting and selection harvesting, parent forest removed in stages, establishes ideal environment conditions for tree regulation, harvesting parent forest - possibly in patterns or removing trees at a certain age

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55

selective harvesting

Removal of higher risk trees and leaves trees with higher potential, improves quality of forest, random

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56

Reforestation

Re-planting an area with trees that have been affected by disturbances such as wildfires, drought, logging, and mining

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57

Integrated pest management

combination of methods (common sense practices + environmentally sensitive) used to effectively control pest species while minimizing the disruption to the environment (trees infected by pests)

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58

Prescribed burning

forest management technique with burn plans, controlled application of fire by a team of fire experts under specified weather conditions to restore health to ecosystems, returns nutrients to soil, removes under growth, helps forests, restores natural function of forests, reduces fuel of wildfires (forests frequently burned are better able to resist drier conditions)

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59

Fire adaptations

Animals can run, fly, or borrow away from forest fires: plants have adapted to fires in ways such as having nonflammable bark, having leaves and viral growth tissue above where most flames can reach, dead leaves around stem to serve as insulation against heat

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60

Reusing wood products

Lessens number of trees cut down, salvages wood

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61

Selected removal of trees

removes higher risk trees and leaves trees with higher potential

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62

Ore

source from which valuable matter is extracted, low grade is not a lot of matter, high grade is a lot of matter

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63

Gangue

Worthless rock in which valuable minerals are formed and mined out from, minerals are not evenly distributed throughout

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64

Tailings

Waste left over from mining containing Toxic chemicals

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65

Surface mining

First 200 feet, easier to get to: strip, open pit, mountaintop removal

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66

Subsurface mining

Below 200 feet: slope and shaft

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67

Reclamation

Process of restoring land to original condition after mining or other activity, mining techniques may be altered due to this, land cannot be fully restored

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68

Nonrenewable resources

Resources that will not be replaced by natural processes once they are used up, fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal, and minerals such as gold and silver; several have served as a foundation of the industrial revolution and are largely depended upon, limited and running out as mining continues as well as depletion

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69

How long it takes for society to run out of a particular non-renewable resource depends on several factors:

The demand for the resource, how fast we use it, the supply of the resource, and technological innovation

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70

As a resource becomes scarce…

Demand increases because resources have started to run out after constant and increasing exploitation, retail price increases, mining price increases

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