Unit 5 AP

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Economic Interest Groups

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55 Terms

1

Economic Interest Groups

Support legislation that benefits their industry, while oppose legislation that harms their interests. \n oi.e. US Chamber of Commerce; National Education Association.

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2

504 Group

Tax exempt entities engaging activities to benefit the community that political motives.

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3

Austin v. Michigan State Chamber of Commerce

Upheld a Michigan law prohibiting nonprofit corporations from using fund revenues to promote candidates in state elections.

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4

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act

Sought unsuccessfully to end soft money influence.

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5

Buckley v. Valeo

Upheld public financing and contributions reporting requirements: Declared money as form of free speech protected by First Amendment.

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6

Critical Election

An election when significant groups of voters change their traditional patterns of party loyalty.

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7

Direct Techniques

Approach the officials personally to present their case and strategies to promote your policy goals. \n -Lobbying \n -Ratings Game \n -Building Alliances \n -Campaign Assistance

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8

FreedomNow.org v. FEC

-FEC provisions over what people donate to FreedomNow.org violate first amendment \n - led to the creation of SuperPACs

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9

Government Regulating the Media

  • Executive Branch - Federal Communications Commission regulate the use of the airwaves.

  • Judicial Branch -First Amendment protections.

  • Legislative Branch -Telecommunication Act (1996) included Internet in broadcast spectrum; allowed for cross ownership of companies.

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10

Hatch Act

Prohibits federal officials from intimidating or bribing voters; forbids government employees from participating in election politics.

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11

Interest Group

Group of people pursuing common interests to influence public policy

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12

Iron Triangle

Policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups

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13

Levels of Party Organization

a. city committee \n b. county committee \n c. state committee \n d. national committee

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14

527 Group

Groups set outside political party control that raise funds based on soft money to support a candidate or issue.

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15

Citizens United v. FEC

Ruled corporations and unions cannot be prohibited from promoting the election of one candidate; organizations have the same Constitutional protections as people

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16

Indirect Techniques

Employ general public or individual constituents to influence the government on its behalf of the interest group. \n -Generating Public Pressure \n -Using Constituents as Lobbyists \n -Unconventional Forms of \n Pressure

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17

Libertarian Party

Individual and private marketplace will produce the best policies; national government has a role in defending nation and little else.

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18

Lobbying

A person hired by the special interest groups in an attempt to influence legislators. \n They influence decision makers by direct contact, media, and mailing campaigns.

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19

Members of Political Campaign

o Top level - Managed by paid professionals. \n o Mid level - Unpaid, trusted people provide advice and money. \n o Low level - Volunteers do the basic jobs for the candidate.

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20

Net Neutrality

The principle that Internet service providers should enable access to all content without favoring or blocking particular products or websites.

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21

New Deal Coalition

Alliance of southern conservatives, religious, and ethnic minorities who supported the Democratic Party for 40 years

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22

Open Primary

Voters from either party may vote without disclosing their party affiliation.

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23

Party Organization

Provides the structural framework and leadership for the political party

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24

Party-centered campaigns

A campaign in which the party coordinates activities, raises money, and develops strategies.

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25

Candidate-centered campaigns

Politics that focuses on the candidates, their particular issues, and character rather than party affiliation

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26

Party-in-government

Collective effort of party members in government positions to accomplish legislative goals

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27

Party-in-the-electorate

Individuals who claim to favor a particular party

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28

Party-line voting

Casting for one political party in all public offices at the same level of government

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29

Platform

A political party's formal statement of basic principles, stands on major issues, and objectives

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30

Political Functions of the Media

•Report news and provide the public with information. \n •Revealing government's actions and set public agenda. \n •Investigate public policies and examine the performance of public officials. \n •Participates in the political socialization of the younger generation, as well as immigrants. \n •Provides a political forum for dialogue and debate.

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31

Political Efficacy

\n Level of faith and trust in their government, and value of vote making difference.

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32

Political Socialization

The process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions

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33

Political Spectrum

Continuum of general political beliefs

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34

Print media

Newspapers, books, and magazines.

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35

Electronic media

Tv, radio, and online communication.

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36

Prospective Voting

Predicting how candidate or party will perform in the future

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37

Qualities of Successful Interest Groups

•Size and Resources \n •Access to Decision-Makers \n •Member Loyalty

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38

Rational-Choice Voting

Individual interests in heart

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39

Relationship between national convention and platform

A candidates use of their political platform to spread their ideas helps decide who the national convention will vote on for their party candidate

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40

Republican party

\n •Originated from sectional conflicts about expansion of slavery into new territories. \n •Conservative and strict interpretation. \n •For laissez-faire, free enterprise, fiscal responsibility, and military spending. \n •Oppose spending for social welfare programs and abortion. \n •Preserving tradition and values.

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41

Democratic party

•Traces roots to Anti-Federalist factions supported Jeffersonian principles. \n •Liberal and loose interpretation. \n •For minimum wage, progressive taxation, welfare programs, and women reproductive rights. \n •Oppose spending for the military, death penalty \n •Community and social responsibility.

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42

Retrospective Voting

\n Electing candidate in power based on recent past

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43

Role of Television

Primary source for news for most Americans

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44

15th Amendment

Gave African American men the right to vote

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45

17th Amendment

Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)

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46

19th Amendment

Gave women the right to vote

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47

23rd Amendment

Inclusion of DIstrict of Columbia in Presidential Election System

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48

24th Amendment

Abolishes poll taxes

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49

26th Amendment

Lowered the voting age to 18

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50

Super PACs

Accept unlimited contributions as long as not coordinating with candidate.

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51

The Electoral College

A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

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52

Third Party

A party that challenges the two major parties

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53

Voter Turnout

The percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election

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54

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Enforces 15th Amendment; authorize federal government to help register black voters under certain circumstances; suspended literacy tests

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55

Closed Primary

Only members of a party may vote in their party's primary

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