Meta Ethics

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Relativism

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18 Terms

1

Relativism

moral judgements are dependent on the standards and social conditions that exist

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2

cultural relativism

moral rules are an expression of the culture and nothing more

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3

Absolutism

some things are right and some things are wrong and that these things are fixed for all time and all people

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4

moral realism

belief that genuine right and wrong exist

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5

Moral Anti-Realism

there are no objective moral facts

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6

example of absolutism

rape and murder are always wrong they do not change culturally

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7

strength of absolutism

provides a fixed ethical code to measure actions

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8

Weakness of absolutism

individual circumstances

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9

strength of relativism

explains the reasons why everyone has differing opinions

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10

weakness of relativism

you still need some elements of absolutism

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11

intuitionism

when we make moral decision we simply choose the action that brings about more of these good things

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12

Strengths of intuitionism

it has a clear account of the meaning of good in ethics

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13

weakness of intuitionism

takes no account of rights even in life and death situations

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14

ethical naturalism

ethics can be defined using the same natural terms as maths or science

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15

weakness of ethical naturalism

simplistic in its account of moral knowledge

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16

is-ought problem

is = factual, objective statement ought = a statement of ethical value

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17

naturalistic fallacy

theory that critiques naturalistic theories the attempt to define good in terms of something that can be identified in the world

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18

Hume's Law

You cannot go from an "is" (statement of fact) to an "ought" (a moral)

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