chapter 19- HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

studied byStudied by 2 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

HIV selectively infects…. cells

1 / 50

Tags and Description

51 Terms

1

HIV selectively infects…. cells

T-helper

New cards
2

what is the genus of HIV

Lentivirus

New cards
3

what type of virus is HIV

retrovirus

New cards
4
<p>what is contained with the capsid of HIV</p>

what is contained with the capsid of HIV

2 identical strands of RNA

New cards
5
<p>what are two important enzymes that HIV contain</p>

what are two important enzymes that HIV contain

reverse transcriptase

integrase

New cards
6
<p>cell plasma membrane of HIV is … (phospholipid)</p>

cell plasma membrane of HIV is … (phospholipid)

enveloped

New cards
7
<p>what are found on the other surface of HIV</p>

what are found on the other surface of HIV

spike proteins

New cards
8

what are two specific regions of the spike proteins

gp120

gp41

<p>gp120</p><p>gp41</p>
New cards
9

gp120 combine with … receptors

CD4+

New cards
10

what three types of cells are CD4 molecules are carried on

T helper cells

macrophages

dendritic cells

New cards
11
<p>basic three stages of HIV attachment to receptors on target T cell</p>

basic three stages of HIV attachment to receptors on target T cell

  1. attachment

  2. fusion

  3. entry

New cards
12

explain the attachment stage of HIV attachment to receptors on target T cell

the gp120 spike attaches to a receptor and to a CCR5 or CXCR4 receptor on the cell

New cards
13

explain the fusion stage of HIV attachment to receptors on target T cell

the gp41 participates in fusion of the HIV with the cell

New cards
14

explain the entry stage of HIV attachment to receptors on target T cell

entry pore is created

after entry, the viral envelope remains behind and the HIV un-coats, releasing the RNA core for directing synthesis of new viruses

New cards
15

what is used to convert single-stranded RNA to DNA

reverse transcriptase

New cards
16

Viral DNA integrates into the … chromosome as a …

host

provirus

New cards
17

SHORT ANSWER QUESTION… stages of multiplication of HIV

  1. enters by fusion between attachment spikes and the host cell receptors

  2. un-coating releases the RNA strands and enzymes

  3. reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to produce double-stranded DNA

  4. the new viral DNA goes into the host cell’s nucleus and is integrated into the host cell chromosome, using integrase

  5. virus matures and eventually leaves the host cell after acquiring everything it needs such as an envelope and attachment spikes

New cards
18

an active infection is when new viruses bud from …

host cells

New cards
19

a latent infection is when DNA is … in the chromosome as a …

hidden

provirus

New cards
20

HIV normally attacks … first and the goes onto the … … and then finally reaches the … cells

macrophages

lymph nodes

T-helper cells

New cards
21

what are the two subtypes of HIV

HIV-1

HIV-2

New cards
22

what type of HIV is more prevalent

HIV-1

New cards
23

HIV-1 is related to viruses that infect … and …

chimpanzees and gorillas

New cards
24

HIV-2 is not often encountered outside of…

West Africa

New cards
25

which of the two subtypes are less pathogenic

HIV-2

New cards
26

which of the two subtypes has a longer asymptomatic period and a lower viral load and morality rate

HIV-2

New cards
27
<p>what is the main character of phase 1 of HIV infection</p>

what is the main character of phase 1 of HIV infection

asymptomatic

New cards
28
<p>in phase 2 of HIV infection, what steadily declines</p>

in phase 2 of HIV infection, what steadily declines

CD4+ T cells

New cards
29
<p>in phase 2 of HIV infection only a few … cells release the virus and there are few serious … ….</p>

in phase 2 of HIV infection only a few … cells release the virus and there are few serious … ….

infected

disease symptoms

New cards
30
<p>what develops in phase 3 of HIV infection</p>

what develops in phase 3 of HIV infection

AIDS develop

New cards
31
<p>in phase 3 of infection the CD4+ count is below … cell/ ul</p>

in phase 3 of infection the CD4+ count is below … cell/ ul

200

New cards
32

AIDS is defined as

late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the effect of the virus

New cards
33

HIV infections usually have a … and … initial immune response

strong and effective

New cards
34

… suppress viral numbers

CLTs

New cards
35

why is it impossible to clear the HIV infection

HIV establishes a pool of latently infected CD4+ T cells

New cards
36

what two age groups are more susceptible to HIV infection and lowers their chances of survival due to an underdeveloped immune system

young children

older adults

New cards
37

what mutation allows individuals to be exposed to HIV virus but never infected from it

CCR5

New cards
38

long term survivors will usually have a… (2 things)

low viral load

effective CLTs

New cards
39

HIV can survive up to … hours outside a cell

6

New cards
40

HIV can survive more than … days inside a cell

1.5

New cards
41

what form of sexual contact is the most dangerous in terms of HIV infection

anal-receptive intercourse

New cards
42

there are more than .. million people infected with AIDS worldwide

36

New cards
43

around … % of infected people with AIDS are found in Africa

70

New cards
44

1/3 of AIDs cases in Eastern Europe and Central/ Southeast Asia are from the use of…

infected needles

New cards
45

… transmission is the most common mode of HIV transmission

heterosexual

New cards
46

when gender has a higher rate of HIV transmission

males

New cards
47

what are three types of interventions which are being used to prevent/ treat AIDs

biomedical

behavioral

structural

New cards
48

what would happen if a drug was administered for HIV that inhibited fusion/ entry

gp120 receptor will not be able to attach to the CD4+ receptor on the T-helper cell

New cards
49

what would happen if a drug was administered for HIV that inhibited reverse transcriptase

HIV would be not be able to replicate the single stranded RNA stranded into DNA

New cards
50

what would happen if a drug was administered for HIV that inhibited integrase

the new viral DNA will not be able to integrate into the host cell chromosome

New cards
51

what would happen if a drug was administered for HIV that inhibited protease

convert viral precursor proteins into structural and functional proteins

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 139 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10011 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(32)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard106 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard154 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 54 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)