AP Psychology: People

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Wilhelm Wundt

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Wilhelm Wundt

  • Father of psych 

  • created the 1st lab dedicated to psych 

  • studied the senses, reaction time, attention span and emotion

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William James

  • created functionalism 

  • wrote the 1st psych textbook 

  • taught 1st psych class

  • Proposed Intrinsic theory

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G Stanley Hall 

  • 1st American to get a PHD in psych 

  • Opened 1st psych lab in the USA

  • 1st APA president

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Mary Whiton Calkins

  • joined William James course

  • 1st female president of APA 

  • worked on memory research

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Margaret Floy Washburn

  • animal research 

  • 1st women w psych degree

  • 2nd APA president

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Dorothea Dix 

  • highlighted unfair treatment of mentally ill 

  • reformed insane asylums

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Charles Darwin

  • natural selection 

  • reinforced evolutionary psych

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Sigmund Freud

  • psychodynamic approach 

  • studied the unconscious mind

  • Use free association to unearth an individual's unconscious mind.

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Ivan Pavlov

  • classical conditioning 

  • experiment with dogs and digestion

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Jean Piaget

  • 1st psychologist to conduct cognitive development research 

  • theory of cognitive development

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Carol Rogers

  • humanistic approach 

  • researched people's personalities 

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John B Watson

  • founder of behaviorism 

  • believed psych should be focused on things your can physically observe

  • was one of the first people to state that behavior see the result of learning 

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BF Skinner

  • expanded behaviorism 

  • operant conditioning

  • his work was based off of Edward L Thorndike 

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Phineas Gage 

  • He was a railroad worker

  • got impaled with a big rod

  • his prefrontal cortex was damaged

  • He suffered severe personality changes

  • (led the way for different parts of the brain to be researched) 

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Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga

  • they were famous for their work in split brain research 

  • split brain procedures are common for people with epilepsy 

  • it cuts the corpus callosum dividing the left and right brain so that the hemisphere could no longer communicate

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John Garcia

  • Researched association

  • hypothesized that some associations are more readily available than others

  • known for research with taste aversion

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Albert Bandura

  • Observational learning

  • famous boo boo doll experiment

  • looked at violence, aggression and modeling

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Edward Tolman

  • Latent Learning

  • Rats complete mazes that rats who had previously been exposed to a certain maze did better than rats with no experience

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Edward Thorndike

  • Trial and error learning

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Robert Rescorla

  • focused on cognition and learning 

  • showed how animals can be taught to expect the outcome of an event

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BF Skinner Box Experiment

  • skinner put a rat in a box that has a food dispenser, speaker, light and a lever.

  • He started by giving the rat a food pellet when the rat moved towards the lever

  • Eventually he only gave the rat a pellet once the rat pushed the lever 

  • lever was a discriminative stimulus (stimulus elicits a response) 

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Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner

they found that animals can be taught to expect the outcome of an event, showing the importance of cognition in learning

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Noam Chomsky

  • believed that individuals were born with universal grammar and people naturally learn to speak

  • He called the process of learning  “language acquisition device”

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

  • conducted experiment where he took random syllables and spent time trying to memorise them

  • he expanded understanding of how memory and relearning work 

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Wolfgang Kohler

  • helped create gestalt approach and was one of the first individuals to explore insight learning 

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Elizabeth Loftus

  • focused on understanding memory 

  • researched the idea that memories were not alway accurate and looked into how the brain could create false memories 

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George A Miller

  • proceed that people can store about 1 to 7 pieces of information in their short-term memory 

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Charles Spearman

  • believed people have one general intelligence.

  • Which can be measured with a single score: ACT STAT IQ 

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Howard Gardener

  • indeed the eight types of intelligence

  • believed that there are different types of intelligence

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Robert Sternberg

  • agreed with gardner about there being multiple intelligences, but thought that there was more than just traditional intelligences.

  • Broke intelligences into three categories

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Alfred Binet

expanded our understanding of intelligence and laid the groundwork for the education system

  • invented the IQ test  

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Francis Galton 

  • believed that people were naturally born with high ability.

  • He is credited when being the first person to believe that we can qualify education 

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Lewis Terman

  • modified the work of Binet to determine the level of intelligence people had

  • Created the stanford-Binet intelligence scale

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David Wechsler

  • created the ______ Adult Intelligence Scale His test would provide an individual with an overall intelligence score and also an individual score 

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Noam Chomsky (perspective on language)

he believed that there was universal grammar and that people naturally learn to speak 

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Skinner (Perspective on Language)

he believed that languages are learned through association, imitation and reinforcement and is not something we are born with 

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Edward Sapir (Perspective on Language)

whatever language we are raised with will determine how we think and process information 

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Diana Baumrind

  • Sought to understand how different parenting styles impact a children's development

  • (identify 4 different parenting styles) 

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Konrad Lorenz

  • Expanded our understanding of how children and animals develop an attachment.
    Researched imprinting with duckling (identification of parents) 

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Harry Harlow

  • Sought to better understand emotional connections

  • Conducted an experiment with monkey to look at the connection between a baby money and a caring mother and a mother who only provides nourishment

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Mary Ainsworth

  • Conducted the strange situation test, where children were put in unfamiliar environments to see how they would react with and without their mother  

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Mary Ainsworth (Strange Situation) 

When the mother left the child alone in a strange location the child world becomes stressed and sad but when the mother returned they would be comforted and return to a happy state  

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Carol Gilligan

  • Critique of kohlberg's theory because it was based on a longitudinal study where they population was all men 

  • She found that kohlberg's original results did not apply strongly to women.

  • She found that boys traditionally tend to opt for justice when looking at morality, while women focus on interpersonal relationships

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Alfred Kinsey

  • researched sexual behavior and motivation.

  • His research was controversial, but became influential in future research on human sexual behavior and motivation 

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Abraham Maslow

  • developed maslow's hierarchy of needs to explain motivation

  • Inidvisuals are motivated based on theur current state in life 

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Stanley Schachter

  • researched how inividuslas interpret their experiences and how that impacts a person emotions.

  • Helped develop the scahecter two-factor theory, which believes emotions occur from both a physical and cognitive awareness to a stimulus 

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Hans Selye

  • looked at how individuals reacted to stress and how thet manage stress.

  • He believed individuals go through different stages when dealing with stress, which is known as General Adaptipn Syndrome

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Paul Ekman

  • believed that certain emotions are innate and can be understood by different cultures.

  • Emotions such as happiness, fear, sadness, surprise and anger can be identified by people around the world 

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Alfred Adler

  • Believed individuals strive to conquer their inferiority complex.

  • A person's drive is to feel a sense of belonging and feel significant. 

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Paul Costa and Robert McCrae 

  • developed a test ath focuses on five different personality factors

  • this helped people understand their personality 

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Carl Jung

  • Believed in the power of the unconscious mind, but believed that the unconscious mind was more than just thoughts and feelings.

  • He believed in the collective unconscious, which is shred inherited memories from past generations. 

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Adler thought about Freud's ideas

  • believed that it was not a child sexual tensions that significantly shaped a child's personality, but rather social  tension.

  • He believed that children strived to conquer their inferiority complex, children want to feel a sense of belonging

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Carl Jung and a unconscious mind

  •  he believed that the unconscious mind has lots of influence over a person, just like freud.

  • But he believed that people have a collective unconscious which is shred inherited memories from past generations.  

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Julian Rotter

  • he believed that our personality developed over time and that we learned from each situation we presented with 

expectancy theory: our behavior is determined based on our expectations and our investment in the outcome of an action

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Hands Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck

An  individuals  can look at personality in two ways… 

  1. extraversion vs introversion

  2. emotional stability vs instability 

    Factor analysis: a way of isolating different variables in a persons personality

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Albert Ellis

  • Created rational-emotive behavior therapy.

  • This is a type of cognitive therapy that works on changing a person's internal thought process about situations

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Mary Cover Jones 

  • A behavioral psychologist who used counterconditioning.

  • Her research was mostly dismissed until Joseph Wolpe refined her techniques into what is known today as exposure therapy 

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Joseph Wolpe 

  • Took Mary Cover Jones research and refined it into exposure therapy.

  • This treatment involves repeatedly exposing the person to the stimulus that frightens them in a controlled setting.

  • over time they individuals will become used to the stimuli and the person anxieties will decrease. 

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