Chapter 16 - Visual Score Analysis 1

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54 Terms

1

Bb

________ instruments- Sound a major second below the written concert pitch.

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2

Melody

________ with accompaniment- Clearly has only one melodic line, but the harmony is not limited to chords moving together.

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3

Alto

________ instruments- ________ saxophone, oboe, alto flute, viola, horn.

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4

chords

The ________ are played as arpeggios or broken ________.

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5

Period

When phases come in pairs and relate to each other

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6

Antecedent

The first phrase

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7

Consequent

The second phrase

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8

Parallel period

When the beginning of the melody is the same in both phrases

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9

Contrasting period

When the beginning of the melody in each phrase is different

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10

Form

An analysis of phrase structure

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11

Song form (aaba)

The most common phrase structure

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12

Coda (Codetta)

The closing few measures of a composition following the PAC, usually not a part of the main thematic material, but an ending added to give the composition closure

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13

Coda sign

Used in compositions that employ a da capo (D.C.) or dal segno (D.S.)

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14

Texture

Basic element of music

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15

Counterpoint

Involves the writing of musical lines that are distinct from each other, but sound harmonious when played together

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16

Chords

Occur when three or more notes are grouped together as a unit

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17

Monophonic

Has only one melodic line with no harmony or counterpoint

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18

Homophonic

Has one melodic line that draws your attention

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19

Chordal homophony

Every line or voice moving together with exactly the same or nearly the same rhythm

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20

Melody with accompaniment

Clearly has only one melodic line, but the harmony is not limited to chords moving together

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21

Ostinato

Short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout an entire composition or some portion of a composition

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22

Alberti bass

An accompaniment figure played on a keyboard instrument with the left hand

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23

Walking bass

A style of bass accompaniment or line that creates a feeling of regular quarter-note movement, similar to the regular alternation of feet while walking

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24

Ragtime

An American style of music that was popular at the turn of the 20th century

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25

Sequence

The repeated melodic pattern at a different interval

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26

Polyphonic (Polyphony, Counterpoint, Contrapuntal)

If more than one independent melody is occurring at the same time

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27

Imitative

If the individual lines are similar in their shapes and sounds

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28

Fugue

A form of composition popular in the Baroque era, in which a theme or subject is introduced by one voice and is imitated by other voices in succession

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29

Nonimitative

If the voice shows little or no resemblance to each other

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30

Countermelody

A secondary melody or line written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent melody

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31

Heterophonic

Theres only one melody but different variations of it are being sung or played at the same time

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32

Solo

A single performer or a passage that is to be performed by a single performer

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33

Soli

A directive to perform an indicated passage of a composition with an entire section of an ensemble

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34

Tutti

All members play

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35

Soprano instruments

Flute, recorder, violin, clarinet, trumpet

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36

Alto instruments

Alto saxophone, oboe, alto flute, viola, horn

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37

Tenor instruments

Trombone, clarinet, tenor, saxophone

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38

Baritone instruments

Basson, English horn, baritone, saxophone, baritone horn, bass clarinet, cello

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39

Bass instruments

Contrabassoon, bass saxophone, double bass, tuba

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40

String

Plucked or bowed across strings

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41

Woodwind

Blowing into a tube with or without a vibrating reed

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42

Brass

Vibrating the lips against the tube to create sound

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43

Percussion

Struck with a hand or a stick to produce sound

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44

Timbre

Determined by how the sound is produced, what the instrument is made of, and the range of an instrument

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45

Register

Refers to the division of the range of an instrument or singing voice

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46

Tessitura

The general range of a performer usually vocal that is the most comfortable, and presents the best-sounding, most characteristic tone quality

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47

Transposition

To sound a pitch different from the one written

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48

Instrumental transposition

The process of changing the key of a musical piece to accommodate instruments that sound a pitch different from what is notated

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49

Concert pitch

The actual notes as played by piano or sung by the voice

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50

Bb instruments

Sound a major second below the written concert pitch

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51

F instruments

Sound a perfect fifth below concert pitch

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52

Eb instruments

Sound a major sixth below (or a minor third above) concert

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53

Orchestra bells and piccolo

They sound an octave higher than written.

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54

Double bass

Sounds an octave lower than written.

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