Biol 112 Lab exam 1

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Calculate Allelic Frequency

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1

Calculate Allelic Frequency

number of desired allele present in population/total number of alleles present in the population ℗

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2

Calculate genotypic frequency

number of desired genotypic present within the population/total number of genotypes present in a population (q)

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3

Determine expected genotypic frequency

q^2

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4

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

describes the genetic variation in a population and determines it will remain constant from one generation to the next without disturbing factors

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5

Natural Selection

some genotypes are more likely to survive than others

  • predation: predators present within the environment of the species being observed

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6

Sexual Selection

a defining factor in which sexual desirability impacts a species ability to survive and continue their genetic line

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7

Genetic Drift

change in the gene frequency from one generation to the next from random chance

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8

Gene Flow

happens where individuals from the population leave and remove their alleles from the original population or when new alleles are added to the population (emigration vs. immigration)

  • genotypic and allelic frequencies are changed

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9

Mutation

introduction of a new allele into the population via random change of an existing allele

  • most often results in lower fitness for the individual

  • quickly eliminated from the population unless completely masked by the presence of a good allele

  • rarely will improve fitness for individual

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10

horizontal gene transfer

incorporation of DNA from other, unrelated organisms

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11

fundamental characteristics of bacteria

  • presence of a cell wall made from peptidoglycan

  • cocci: spherical shape

  • bacillus: rod-shaped

  • spirillum: spiral-shaped

  • Ex: bacillus, coccus, spirillum, and cylindrospermum

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12

cyanobacteria

  • bacillus and/or coccus

  • contain thylakoids

    • can photosynthesize

  • called heterocyst’s

    • focused on nitrogen fixation

  • have colony members known as akinetes

    • spore-form cells with thick cell wall to protect from harsh environmental conditions

  • gave rise to chloroplasts (endosymbiosis)

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13

Fundamental characteristics of archaea

  • lack peptidoglycan

  • have advanced features (histones nad introns)

  • extremophiles

  • have unique branching hydrocarbons in the cell membranes (enhance cell’s structural support)

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fundamental characteristics of eukarya

  • contain a true nucleus

  • protists: small, mostly single-celled organisms

    • not plants, animals or fungi

    • use flagella, ciliar or pseudopodia for movement

    • live in varied environments

    • varied nutrient sources (hetero-+ autotrophs)

    • 1+ nucleus per cell

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15

unikonta - amoebozoa

most distinct feature is the lobe- or tube-shaped pseudopodia

  • large + extend from anywhere on the cell

  • ex: amoeba and slime mold

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“SAR” - stramenopiles

often have two flagella on each cell: one smooth and one “hairy”

  • ex: diatons and achyla

    • also golden algae, brown algae, oomycetes, and diatoms

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“SAR” - alveolates

have a membrane enclosed sac (alveolus) just beneath the plasma membrane

  • some are photosynthetic and others are heterotrophic

  • ex: dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates

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“SAR” - Rhizarians

have elaborate shells (tests) and thin pseudopodia

  • Ex: radiolarians, foraminiferans, and cercozoans

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Excavata

have a feeding groove on one side

  • asymmetrical + usually single celled

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Excavata - Euglenozoa

usually mixotrophic but some are parasitic

  • Ex: euglena

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21

Archaeplastida

all are photosynthetic

  • most display alternation of generations

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22

Archaeplastida - Chlorophytes

have chlorophyll a + b and chloroplasts

  • cell walls have cellulose

  • store carbs as starch

  • Ex: chlamydomonas (2 opposing, anterior flagella) and Volvox (colonial)

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23

Archaeplastida - Charophytes

resemble land plants in morphology + reproductive strategies)

  • Ex: sporigyra

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24

seeds

protect and nourish an embryo

  • provide a way for the progeny to be moved by means other than water

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25

vascular tissue

used to move water and nutrients throughout a plant

  • addition of a root system lets the collection of water and nutrients happen from deeper in the ground and movement of the molecules to distant parts of the plant using the shoot system

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nonvascular plants

bryophytes (hepaticophyta, anthocertophyta and bryophyta) are seedless and nonvascular

  • lack of lignin to increase stability

  • small and limited to damp habitats

  • ex: liverworts and moss

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vascular (tracheophytes) seedless plants

lycophytes (club mosses, quillworts, spike moss) and monilophytes (horsetails, whisk ferns and true ferns)

  • gametes are relatively unprotected and found in the gametangium

  • rely on water to more spores for fertilization

  • leaves

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28

vascular (tracheophytes) seed plants

spermatophytes

gymnosperms: seeds w/out fruit

  • usually have some form of cone with the ovules and a cone containing pollen

  • coniferophyta, cycadophyta, ginkophyta and gnetophyta

angiosperms: seed plants with fruit

  • monocots and dicots

  • elaborate flower to attract pollinators

  • seeds encased in an ovary that forms a fruit

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