Skeletal and muscular system

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Functions of the skeleton

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1

Functions of the skeleton

  • Shape and support

  • Movement

  • Protection

  • Blood production (red blood cells)

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Examples of long bones

  • Femur

  • Humerus

  • Clavicle

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Examples of short bones

  • Carpals

  • Tarsals

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Examples of flat bones

  • Scapula

  • Sternum

  • Cranium

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5

Examples of irregular bones

  • Vertebrae

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Types of joints

  • Fixed (fibrous)

  • Slightly moveable (cartilaginous)

  • Freely moveable (synovial)

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Type of synovial joint

  • Ball and socket

  • Hinge

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Examples of fixed joints

Cranium

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Examples of slightly moveable joints

Vertebrae

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10

Examples of freely moveable joints

Hip

Elbow

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Components of a synovial joint

  • synovial membrane

  • synovial fluid

  • joint (fibrous) capsule

  • cartilage

  • ligaments

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12

Flexion

Bending at a joint

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Extension

Straightening a joint

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Abduction

Movement away from the body

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Adduction

Movement towards the body

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Rotation

Limb moves in a circular motion around a fixed point

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Circumduction

Limb moves in a circle

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Plantar flexion

Pointing of toes

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Dorsiflexion

Foot moves towards the shin

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Tendon

Connects muscles to bones

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Ligament

Attaches bone to bone

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22

Muscle that contracts

Agonist

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Muscle that relaxes

Antagonist

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One muscle of the pair contracts to move the body part, the other muscle in the pair then contracts to return the body part back to the original position

Antagonistic pair

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Isotonic contractions

When a muscle contracts and changes length

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Concentric

Muscle shortening

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Eccentric

Muscle lengthening

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Isometric contraction

Muscle producing tension but staying the same length

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29

Muscle fibre types

Fast and slow twitch

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30

Fast twitch muscle fibres

  • Contracts quickly

  • Anaerobic

  • Low fatigue tolerance

  • Small, sudden bursts

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31

Slow twitch muscle fibres

  • Contracts slowly

  • Aerobic

  • High fatigue tolerance

  • Sustaining energy source

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