gr.9 art exam

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Elements of Art

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82 Terms

1

Elements of Art

The visual components of color, line, shape, texture, and value.

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line

  • necessary for art

  • path of a movement point

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color

  • light reflected of a surface

  • properties: hue, intensity. value

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4

value

  • how light or dark something is on a scale of white to black

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5

texture

  • how something feels or looks like it feels

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shape

  • enclosed space defined by the other elements of art

  • shape is 2D, form is 3D

  • geometric or organic

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Principles of Art

Balance, emphasis, contrast, movement, rhythm, unity, space, and variety

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space

  • feeling of depth on a 2D surface

  • positive and negative space

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rhythm

  • combining elements to create a feeling of action/movement

  • guiding the movement of the viewers eye

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10

contast

  • an element conflicting with another to create interest

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emphasis

  • another word for contrast

  • combing opposite elements to create a center of interest

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12

balance

  • creating stability in art

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13

types of balance

  • symmetrical balance - both halves are the same

  • asymmetric balance - two halves are different but carry the same visual weight

  • radial balance - image revolves around a central point

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variety

  • different elements combined

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repetition

  • elements used multiple times to create patterns or unity

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16

harmony

  • the feeling of unity throughout a piece

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17

contour drawing

drawing in which only contour lines are used to represent the subject matter

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What are the basic rules of contour drawing?

  1. Don't left pen of paper unless needed

  2. No shading

  3. No coloring

  4. Must look 90% at subject matter, 10% and the paper

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19

drawing techniques

hatching, stippling, contour, blending, shading, stumbling, etc

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Basic Shapes

There are four basic shapes (cone, sphere, cylinder, and cube) that are used to create objects in works of art.

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organic shapes

Shape that are flowy and natural line structure. Not angular but more circular.

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Geomentric Shape

Shapes that conform to regular, angular geometry. E.i squares, rectangles and pentagons

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Chiaroscuro

the treatment of light and shade in drawing and painting

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highlight

an area of lightest value in a work

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core shadow

The darkest part of a shadow

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Midtones

Tone values in an image that fall midway between highlight and shadow tones

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cast shadow

the shadow that exists underneath an object.

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reflective light

The relatively weak light that bounces off a nearby surface onto the shadowed side of a form.

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Color Theory

Color theory is the way we mix colors together to create new colors or how we can select color combinations from the color wheel. Color theory also involves the messages colors communicate; the methods used to replicate color.

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complimentary colors

Colors opposite on the color wheel

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31

primary colors

red, yellow, blue

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secondary colors

orange, green, violet

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tertiary colors

yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, yellow-green

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split complementary

a color and the 2 colors on either side of its complement

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analogous colors

colors that are next to each other on the color wheel

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Monochromatic colors

all the hues (tints and shades) of a single color

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warm colors

  • red, orange, yellow

  • seem to move towards the viewer

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cool colors

  • blue, green, violet

  • seem to recede from the viewer

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hue

a particular shade of a given color

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40

shade

Adding black to a color

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Tint

Adding white to a color

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42

how can you dull a color?

by mixing a hue with its complement

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43

cave art

prehistoric art found in caves

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44

abstract art

art that depicts natural objects in simplified, distorted, or exaggerated ways

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45

Representational Art

art that recognizably represents or depicts a particular subject

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non-representational art

presents visual forms with no specific references to anything outside themselves

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Chauvet Cave

The earliest known painted cave, dated to between 38,000 and 33,000 years ago. It is located in Lascaux, France.

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48

Great Hall of the Bulls

Artist: unknown

Date: 15 000 BC

Medium: Ochre, water, animal fat

Importance: earliest art form known, very flat and simplified

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Bowmen and deer

Artist: unknown

Date: 10 000 - 9 000

Medium: Iron Oxide, manganese, water, animal fat

Importance: Group hunting, bows and arrows, very early attempts at perspective drawing

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Medieval Art

A kind of art in which subjects are religious, figures look flat and stiff, important figures are large, subjects are clothed with little emotion, and it is flat and two dimensional with a single color background.

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Renaissance Art

An art of line and edges, figures from the bible,classical history, and mythology, commisioned portraits, use of perspective, chiarascuro (light and dark) to achieve rounded effect, secular backgrounds and material splendor. Values: secularism, individualism, virtu, balance, order, passivity and calm.

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52

self-portrait

Artist: albrecht durer

Date: 1484

Medium: sliver point pen

Importance: he was only 13, unable to erase, one of the earliest self portraits, used a 'looking glass' to see himself

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53

Broadway Boogie Woogie

Artist: Piet Mondrian

Date: 1942

Medium: oil on canvas

Importance: inspired my motion, inspired by city life, yellow squares and taxis

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Improvisation 7

Artist: Wassily Kandinsky

Date: 1910

Medium: Oil on canvas

Importance: art was inspired by the power of music

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55

what are the components of shading?

  1. highlight

  2. midtones

  3. core shadow

  4. reflective light

  5. cast shadow

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56

clay procedure

  1. lay garbage bag over desk

  2. lay bat down to build mask on top of

  3. make armature out of newspaper and tape to support the mask

  4. roll clay 1/4 inch thick

  5. lay rolled clay on top of armature

  6. used additive or subtractive method to create features

  7. slip and score any clay you wish to attach

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clay clean up

  1. take mosit paper towels and cover the project with them, this will keep everything moist while you’re still working

  2. take project off the bat and secure it inside the garbage bag

  3. thoroughly clean work space

  4. wash hands and tools in the buckets, not the sink

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bat

a board to work on your project on

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clay

  • earth filled with minerals

  • when fired it is water proof and holds its shape

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wedging

kneading clay to get rid of air pockets

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slip

a mixture of clay and water used as a glue

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scoring clay

making grooves in clay so it will better hold onto any clay that is attached

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coil

clay cylinders, these are widely used to create different shapes out of clay

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slab

clay rolled flat, this is where relief sculptures are built

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leatherhard stage

  • cold to touch

  • no longer bendable

  • best stage to carve clay

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greenware stage

  • air dried clay

  • ready to fire and fragile

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kiln

clay oven

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firing

heating clay up to 1600F to harden it

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bisqueware

clay that has been fired once

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sculpture-in-the-round

sculpture that can be seen from all sides

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relief sculpture

sculpture that is raised from a flat background

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subtractive method

  • craving areas away to create desired image

  • common materials: stone, wood

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additive method

  • adding material to create desired image

  • common materials: clay, wax, plasticine

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construction method

  • joining material to create desired image

  • ex: welding metal, gluing cardboard

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casting method

  • image is created from something flexible (clay, wax)

  • it is then covered in plaster to create a mold

  • plaster is removed and liquid metal is poured into the mold

    • method often used to create hallow images

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opaque

fully covers a surface not letting anything show through

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transparent

allowing other layers to show through

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how is paint made?

by mixing pigments with liquids

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79

tempera paint

  • dries fast and dull

  • add block or white to create tints and shades

  • painting surfaces: paper, masonite, cardboard

  • brushes: stiff and soft bristle brushes

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80

water colors

  • dries fast and transparent

  • add a darker hue or water to create tints and shades

  • painting surfaces: textured paper/water color paper

  • brushes: soft hair brushes like sable or camel

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81

acrylic paint

  • dries fast and opaque

  • add black or white to creates tints and shades

  • painting surfaces: paper, wood, canvas, masonite

  • brushes: pallet knife or stiff bristle brushes

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oil paint

  • dries slow and opaque

  • add black or white to create tints and shades

  • painting surfaces: canvas, wood, masonite, heavy paper

  • brushes: pallet knife or stiff bristle brushes

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