SA#3 Bio Reviewer Cycle 6-7

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Prominence of Membranes

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Prominence of Membranes

<p>An essential feature of every cell is the presence of membranes that defines the boundary of the cells and any internal compartments</p>

An essential feature of every cell is the presence of membranes that defines the boundary of the cells and any internal compartments

<p>An essential feature of every cell is the presence of membranes that defines the boundary of the cells and any internal compartments</p>
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Functions of Membranes

<p>Membranes not only define the cell and its organelles but important functions, including transports, signaling, and adhesion.</p>

Membranes not only define the cell and its organelles but important functions, including transports, signaling, and adhesion.

<p>Membranes not only define the cell and its organelles but important functions, including transports, signaling, and adhesion.</p>
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The Plasma Membrane

<ul><li><p>In all cells, the plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with numerous proteins embedded in it.</p></li><li><p>Cholesterol provides support</p></li></ul>
  • In all cells, the plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with numerous proteins embedded in it.

  • Cholesterol provides support

<ul><li><p>In all cells, the plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with numerous proteins embedded in it.</p></li><li><p>Cholesterol provides support</p></li></ul>
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Phospholipids

<ul><li><p>Amphipathic because it is composed of - Hydrophilic regions - polar - Hydrophobic regions - non-polar</p></li><li><p>Lipids are small nonpolar molecules (e.g O2 and CO2) pass freely across</p></li></ul>
  • Amphipathic because it is composed of - Hydrophilic regions - polar - Hydrophobic regions - non-polar

  • Lipids are small nonpolar molecules (e.g O2 and CO2) pass freely across

<ul><li><p>Amphipathic because it is composed of - Hydrophilic regions - polar - Hydrophobic regions - non-polar</p></li><li><p>Lipids are small nonpolar molecules (e.g O2 and CO2) pass freely across</p></li></ul>
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Saturated Fat

<p>At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat, such as the fat in butter, are packed closely together, forming a solid.</p><p>Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule (Each hydrocarbon chain is represented as a zigzag line, where each bend represents a carbon atom; are not hydrogens shown.)</p><p>Space-filling model of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (red oxygen, = black carbon, gray = hydrogen)</p>

At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat, such as the fat in butter, are packed closely together, forming a solid.

Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule (Each hydrocarbon chain is represented as a zigzag line, where each bend represents a carbon atom; are not hydrogens shown.)

Space-filling model of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (red oxygen, = black carbon, gray = hydrogen)

<p>At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat, such as the fat in butter, are packed closely together, forming a solid.</p><p>Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule (Each hydrocarbon chain is represented as a zigzag line, where each bend represents a carbon atom; are not hydrogens shown.)</p><p>Space-filling model of stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (red oxygen, = black carbon, gray = hydrogen)</p>
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Unsaturated Fat

<p>At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat such as olive oil cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in some of their fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.</p><p>Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule</p><p>Space-filling model of oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid</p><p>Due to the presence of double bonds in the hydrophobic tail of phospholipids, a kink (bend) is formed. This causes the membrane to be “fluid”</p>

At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat such as olive oil cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in some of their fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.

Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule

Space-filling model of oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid

Due to the presence of double bonds in the hydrophobic tail of phospholipids, a kink (bend) is formed. This causes the membrane to be “fluid”

<p>At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat such as olive oil cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in some of their fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.</p><p>Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule</p><p>Space-filling model of oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid</p><p>Due to the presence of double bonds in the hydrophobic tail of phospholipids, a kink (bend) is formed. This causes the membrane to be “fluid”</p>
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Fluid Mosaic Model

<p>The membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.</p><p>Proteins bob around it which is the reason why it is called the Fluid Mosaic Model</p>

The membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.

Proteins bob around it which is the reason why it is called the Fluid Mosaic Model

<p>The membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.</p><p>Proteins bob around it which is the reason why it is called the Fluid Mosaic Model</p>
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Membrane Lipids - Fluid Part: Phospholipid

<p>Responsible for the selective permeability of cell</p>

Responsible for the selective permeability of cell

<p>Responsible for the selective permeability of cell</p>
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Membrane Lipids - Fluid Part: Sterols

<p>Maintain the membranes fluidity as the temperature fluctuates (Cholesterol in animal membranes)</p>

Maintain the membranes fluidity as the temperature fluctuates (Cholesterol in animal membranes)

<p>Maintain the membranes fluidity as the temperature fluctuates (Cholesterol in animal membranes)</p>
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Membrane Proteins - Mosaic Part: Integral Proteins

<p>Proteins embedded within the membrane</p>

Proteins embedded within the membrane

<p>Proteins embedded within the membrane</p>
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Membrane Proteins - Mosaic Part: Peripheral proteins

<p>Proteins bound to the surface of the membrane</p>

Proteins bound to the surface of the membrane

<p>Proteins bound to the surface of the membrane</p>
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Membrane Proteins - Mosaic Part: Lipid-Anchored Proteins

<p>Proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are attached to the lipids within the cell membrane</p>

Proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are attached to the lipids within the cell membrane

<p>Proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are attached to the lipids within the cell membrane</p>
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Cell to Cell Recognition: Glycolipids

<p>Carbohydrate groups attached to lipids</p>

Carbohydrate groups attached to lipids

<p>Carbohydrate groups attached to lipids</p>
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Cell to Cell Recognition: Glycoprotein

<p>Carbohydrate groups attached to proteins for cell recognition</p>

Carbohydrate groups attached to proteins for cell recognition

<p>Carbohydrate groups attached to proteins for cell recognition</p>
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Membrane Proteins

<p>Are classified according to their mode of attachment to the membrane as integral membrane proteins (a-d), peripheral membrane proteins (e), or lipid-anchored membrane proteins (f-g).</p>

Are classified according to their mode of attachment to the membrane as integral membrane proteins (a-d), peripheral membrane proteins (e), or lipid-anchored membrane proteins (f-g).

<p>Are classified according to their mode of attachment to the membrane as integral membrane proteins (a-d), peripheral membrane proteins (e), or lipid-anchored membrane proteins (f-g).</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Channel Proteins

<p>Allows only one or a few types of specific molecules to move across Ex: Aquaporins</p>

Allows only one or a few types of specific molecules to move across Ex: Aquaporins

<p>Allows only one or a few types of specific molecules to move across Ex: Aquaporins</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Carrier proteins

<p>Moves substances across the membrane</p><p>changes shape as solutes pass through.</p>

Moves substances across the membrane

changes shape as solutes pass through.

<p>Moves substances across the membrane</p><p>changes shape as solutes pass through.</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Enzymatic Activity

<p>Enzymatic proteins directly participate in metabolic reactions</p>

Enzymatic proteins directly participate in metabolic reactions

<p>Enzymatic proteins directly participate in metabolic reactions</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Adhesion Proteins

<p>The junctions assist cell to cell adhesion and communication</p>

The junctions assist cell to cell adhesion and communication

<p>The junctions assist cell to cell adhesion and communication</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Glycoproteins

<p>Enable our bodies to distinguish between our own cells and others</p>

Enable our bodies to distinguish between our own cells and others

<p>Enable our bodies to distinguish between our own cells and others</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Receptor Proteins

<p>Has a shape that allows a specific molecule, called a signal molecule to bind to it.</p>

Has a shape that allows a specific molecule, called a signal molecule to bind to it.

<p>Has a shape that allows a specific molecule, called a signal molecule to bind to it.</p>
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Functions of Membrane Proteins: Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)

<p>Microfilaments of the cytoskeleton may be bound to membrane proteins to maintain cell shape and stabilize the location of certain membrane proteins.</p>

Microfilaments of the cytoskeleton may be bound to membrane proteins to maintain cell shape and stabilize the location of certain membrane proteins.

<p>Microfilaments of the cytoskeleton may be bound to membrane proteins to maintain cell shape and stabilize the location of certain membrane proteins.</p>
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Fluidity of Membrane

<p>Membranes are not static sheets of molecules locked rigidly in place.</p>

Membranes are not static sheets of molecules locked rigidly in place.

<p>Membranes are not static sheets of molecules locked rigidly in place.</p>
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Do Membrane Proteins Move?

<p>Movement of membrane proteins are slower compared to lipids and are restricted to a limited area of the membrane.</p>

Movement of membrane proteins are slower compared to lipids and are restricted to a limited area of the membrane.

<p>Movement of membrane proteins are slower compared to lipids and are restricted to a limited area of the membrane.</p>
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Factors Affecting Membrane Fluidity: Double Bonds

<p>Because of the kinks in fatty acid chains where double bonds are located, unsaturated hydrocarbon tails cannot pack closely together, thus making the membrane more fluid</p>

Because of the kinks in fatty acid chains where double bonds are located, unsaturated hydrocarbon tails cannot pack closely together, thus making the membrane more fluid

<p>Because of the kinks in fatty acid chains where double bonds are located, unsaturated hydrocarbon tails cannot pack closely together, thus making the membrane more fluid</p>
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Factors Affecting Membrane Fluidity: Steroids

<p>The steroid cholesterol, which is wedged between phospholipid molecules in the plasma membranes of animal cells, has different effects on membrane fluidity at different temperatures</p>

The steroid cholesterol, which is wedged between phospholipid molecules in the plasma membranes of animal cells, has different effects on membrane fluidity at different temperatures

<p>The steroid cholesterol, which is wedged between phospholipid molecules in the plasma membranes of animal cells, has different effects on membrane fluidity at different temperatures</p>
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Evolution of Differences in Membrane Lipid Composition

<p>Extreme environments pose a challenge for life, resulting in evolutionary adaptations that include differences in membrane lipid composition.</p>

Extreme environments pose a challenge for life, resulting in evolutionary adaptations that include differences in membrane lipid composition.

<p>Extreme environments pose a challenge for life, resulting in evolutionary adaptations that include differences in membrane lipid composition.</p>
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Most Organisms can Regulate Membrane Fluidity

<p>• Most organisms can regulate membrane fluidity, primarily by changing the lipid composition of their membranes. • An ability that is important for &quot;cold-blooded&quot; organisms</p>

• Most organisms can regulate membrane fluidity, primarily by changing the lipid composition of their membranes. • An ability that is important for "cold-blooded" organisms

<p>• Most organisms can regulate membrane fluidity, primarily by changing the lipid composition of their membranes. • An ability that is important for &quot;cold-blooded&quot; organisms</p>
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Passive Transport

<p>A substance moves across a membrane without the direct expenditure of energy. • Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis</p><p>Facilitated diffusion is considered a passive transport because the solute is moving down its concentration gradient, a process that requires no energy.</p>

A substance moves across a membrane without the direct expenditure of energy. • Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis

Facilitated diffusion is considered a passive transport because the solute is moving down its concentration gradient, a process that requires no energy.

<p>A substance moves across a membrane without the direct expenditure of energy. • Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis</p><p>Facilitated diffusion is considered a passive transport because the solute is moving down its concentration gradient, a process that requires no energy.</p>
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Active Transport

<p>A cell uses a transport protein to move a concentration substance against its gradient from where it is less concentrated to where it is more concentrated • Sodium-Potassium Pump</p>

A cell uses a transport protein to move a concentration substance against its gradient from where it is less concentrated to where it is more concentrated • Sodium-Potassium Pump

<p>A cell uses a transport protein to move a concentration substance against its gradient from where it is less concentrated to where it is more concentrated • Sodium-Potassium Pump</p>
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Sodium-Potassium Pump

<p>Cells must contain high concentrations of potassium (K+) and low concentrations of sodium (Na+) to perform many functions.</p>

Cells must contain high concentrations of potassium (K+) and low concentrations of sodium (Na+) to perform many functions.

<p>Cells must contain high concentrations of potassium (K+) and low concentrations of sodium (Na+) to perform many functions.</p>
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Other examples of active transport

<p>In Plants : ● lons moving from soil into plant roots ● Minerals traveling through a stem to various parts of the plant ● Sugars from photosynthesis moving from leaves to fruit</p><p>In Animals : ● Amino acids moving along the human intestinal tract ● Glucose moving in or out of a cell ● Enzyme secretion ● Release of antibodies</p>

In Plants : ● lons moving from soil into plant roots ● Minerals traveling through a stem to various parts of the plant ● Sugars from photosynthesis moving from leaves to fruit

In Animals : ● Amino acids moving along the human intestinal tract ● Glucose moving in or out of a cell ● Enzyme secretion ● Release of antibodies

<p>In Plants : ● lons moving from soil into plant roots ● Minerals traveling through a stem to various parts of the plant ● Sugars from photosynthesis moving from leaves to fruit</p><p>In Animals : ● Amino acids moving along the human intestinal tract ● Glucose moving in or out of a cell ● Enzyme secretion ● Release of antibodies</p>
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Bulk Transport

<p>Macromolecules are often too large to be moved by transport proteins, so vesicles are formed (Use vesicles to transport substances) • Endocytosis and Exocytosis</p>

Macromolecules are often too large to be moved by transport proteins, so vesicles are formed (Use vesicles to transport substances) • Endocytosis and Exocytosis

<p>Macromolecules are often too large to be moved by transport proteins, so vesicles are formed (Use vesicles to transport substances) • Endocytosis and Exocytosis</p>
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Simple Diffusion

<p>Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.</p><p>Substances may enter or leave cells by simple diffusion only if they can pass freely through the membrane</p>

Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.

Substances may enter or leave cells by simple diffusion only if they can pass freely through the membrane

<p>Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.</p><p>Substances may enter or leave cells by simple diffusion only if they can pass freely through the membrane</p>
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Diffusion of one Solute

<p>Diffusion also occurs across membranes.</p><p>Random movement of dye molecules will cause some to pass through the pores; this will happen more often on the side with more dye molecules.</p>

Diffusion also occurs across membranes.

Random movement of dye molecules will cause some to pass through the pores; this will happen more often on the side with more dye molecules.

<p>Diffusion also occurs across membranes.</p><p>Random movement of dye molecules will cause some to pass through the pores; this will happen more often on the side with more dye molecules.</p>
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Diffusion of two solutes

<p>Note that each substance diffuses down its own concentration gradient, unaffected by the concentration gradients of other substances</p>

Note that each substance diffuses down its own concentration gradient, unaffected by the concentration gradients of other substances

<p>Note that each substance diffuses down its own concentration gradient, unaffected by the concentration gradients of other substances</p>
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Osmosis

<p>Solvent molecules move from low to high solute concentration</p>

Solvent molecules move from low to high solute concentration

<p>Solvent molecules move from low to high solute concentration</p>
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Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance

<p>Water diffuses across the membrane from the region of higher free water concentration (lower solute concentration) to that of lower free water concentration (higher solute concentration) until the solute concentrations on both sides of the membrane are more nearly equal.</p>

Water diffuses across the membrane from the region of higher free water concentration (lower solute concentration) to that of lower free water concentration (higher solute concentration) until the solute concentrations on both sides of the membrane are more nearly equal.

<p>Water diffuses across the membrane from the region of higher free water concentration (lower solute concentration) to that of lower free water concentration (higher solute concentration) until the solute concentrations on both sides of the membrane are more nearly equal.</p>
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Effects of Osmosis on Cells

<p>Tonicity is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. ● Hypo (less than) ● Iso (same as) ●Hyper (more than)</p>

Tonicity is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. ● Hypo (less than) ● Iso (same as) ●Hyper (more than)

<p>Tonicity is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. ● Hypo (less than) ● Iso (same as) ●Hyper (more than)</p>
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Effect of Osmosis on Animal Cells

<p>There will be no net movement of water across the membrane The cell is stable</p><p>The water inside the cell goes out. The cell shrinks.</p><p>Water enters inside the cell faster than it leaves The cell bursts.</p>

There will be no net movement of water across the membrane The cell is stable

The water inside the cell goes out. The cell shrinks.

Water enters inside the cell faster than it leaves The cell bursts.

<p>There will be no net movement of water across the membrane The cell is stable</p><p>The water inside the cell goes out. The cell shrinks.</p><p>Water enters inside the cell faster than it leaves The cell bursts.</p>
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Osmosis in Plant Cells

<p>Hypo means less, meaning the solution outside the cell has LESSER solute than the one inside the cell</p><p>Iso means same, meaning the Hyper means more, meaning solution inside the cell is the solution outside the cell</p><p>similar or EQUAL to the has GREATER solute than the solution outside the cell one inside the cell</p>

Hypo means less, meaning the solution outside the cell has LESSER solute than the one inside the cell

Iso means same, meaning the Hyper means more, meaning solution inside the cell is the solution outside the cell

similar or EQUAL to the has GREATER solute than the solution outside the cell one inside the cell

<p>Hypo means less, meaning the solution outside the cell has LESSER solute than the one inside the cell</p><p>Iso means same, meaning the Hyper means more, meaning solution inside the cell is the solution outside the cell</p><p>similar or EQUAL to the has GREATER solute than the solution outside the cell one inside the cell</p>
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Phagocytosis

<p>● Also known as cellular-eating ● Cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membranous sac called a food vacuole.</p>

● Also known as cellular-eating ● Cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membranous sac called a food vacuole.

<p>● Also known as cellular-eating ● Cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membranous sac called a food vacuole.</p>
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Pinocytosis

<p>• Also known as cell drinking • This occurs when vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles.</p>

• Also known as cell drinking • This occurs when vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles.

<p>• Also known as cell drinking • This occurs when vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles.</p>
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Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

<p>A form of endocytosis in which receptor proteins on the cell surface are used to capture a specific target molecule.</p>

A form of endocytosis in which receptor proteins on the cell surface are used to capture a specific target molecule.

<p>A form of endocytosis in which receptor proteins on the cell surface are used to capture a specific target molecule.</p>
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Biomolecules

<p>Compounds can be classified into two types:</p><ul><li><p>Organic (living, proteins carbs, lipids, nucleic acid)</p></li><li><p>Inorganic (non living, water, acid, bases, salts, co2)</p></li></ul>

Compounds can be classified into two types:

  • Organic (living, proteins carbs, lipids, nucleic acid)

  • Inorganic (non living, water, acid, bases, salts, co2)

<p>Compounds can be classified into two types:</p><ul><li><p>Organic (living, proteins carbs, lipids, nucleic acid)</p></li><li><p>Inorganic (non living, water, acid, bases, salts, co2)</p></li></ul>
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Element

<ul><li><p>the simplest form of substance that cannot be simplified into another form.</p></li><li><p>Major elements that makeup living systems: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Calcium</p></li></ul>
  • the simplest form of substance that cannot be simplified into another form.

  • Major elements that makeup living systems: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Calcium

<ul><li><p>the simplest form of substance that cannot be simplified into another form.</p></li><li><p>Major elements that makeup living systems: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Calcium</p></li></ul>
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Compounds

<p>a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined together Compounds in Living Systems: Inorganic &amp; Organic</p>

a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined together Compounds in Living Systems: Inorganic & Organic

<p>a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined together Compounds in Living Systems: Inorganic &amp; Organic</p>
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Inorganic Compounds

<p>• any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions • water, acids, bases, electrolytes, carbon dioxide</p>

• any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions • water, acids, bases, electrolytes, carbon dioxide

<p>• any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions • water, acids, bases, electrolytes, carbon dioxide</p>
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Water

<p>The Universal and Versatile Solvent</p><ul><li><p>Most common biological solvent,  (dissolves an enormous variety of solutes necessary for living)</p></li><li><p>Can exist in nature as solid, liquid, gaseous states</p></li></ul>

The Universal and Versatile Solvent

  • Most common biological solvent, (dissolves an enormous variety of solutes necessary for living)

  • Can exist in nature as solid, liquid, gaseous states

<p>The Universal and Versatile Solvent</p><ul><li><p>Most common biological solvent,  (dissolves an enormous variety of solutes necessary for living)</p></li><li><p>Can exist in nature as solid, liquid, gaseous states</p></li></ul>
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Characteristics of Water: Biological solvent

ability to dissolve many substances including essential molecules in the body

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Characteristics of Water: High heat capacity

A large amount of heat is needed to increase the temperature. It helps in maintaining a constant body.

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Characteristics of Water: High heat of vaporization

Helps in preventing dehydration in an organism

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Characteristics of Water: High heat of fusion

helps organism from freezing at a low temperature

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Characteristics of Water: Medium for chemical and physical processes

can serve as a place for exchanging gases and nutrients, and elimination of waste

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Characteristics of Water: Means of transport

Can serve as a transporter/vehicle in the distribution of nutrients gases and collection of waste product all throughout the body

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Acids

<p>Taste sour, change the color of certain indicators • react with some metals and bases • promote chemical reactions (acid catalysis) in a water solution • Ex: acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid • ptt: 2-4</p>

Taste sour, change the color of certain indicators • react with some metals and bases • promote chemical reactions (acid catalysis) in a water solution • Ex: acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid • ptt: 2-4

<p>Taste sour, change the color of certain indicators • react with some metals and bases • promote chemical reactions (acid catalysis) in a water solution • Ex: acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid • ptt: 2-4</p>
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Bases

<p>•  bitter, slippery in consistency •  turns litmus paper to blue •  i.e. sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, some antacids</p>

• bitter, slippery in consistency • turns litmus paper to blue • i.e. sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, some antacids

<p>•  bitter, slippery in consistency •  turns litmus paper to blue •  i.e. sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, some antacids</p>
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pH Scale

<p>used to describe the acidity and basicity of a solution. (6 and lower = more acidic, 7 - pure water, 8 and higher = more basic)</p>

used to describe the acidity and basicity of a solution. (6 and lower = more acidic, 7 - pure water, 8 and higher = more basic)

<p>used to describe the acidity and basicity of a solution. (6 and lower = more acidic, 7 - pure water, 8 and higher = more basic)</p>
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Electrolytes

● can conduct electricity within the body ● cations - positively charged ● anions – negatively charged ● important in maintaining voltages in cell membrane • sends electrical impulses in nerve cells and muscle cells

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Carbon Dioxide

● plants : important for photosynthesis ● animals : waste product from the breakdown of glucose ● a by-product in ethanol production (fermentation)

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Organic Compounds

<p>● contain carbon (except for carbon dioxide) •● aka macromolecules - made up of hundreds or thousands of atoms o individual units: monomers ● Types: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid</p>

● contain carbon (except for carbon dioxide) •● aka macromolecules - made up of hundreds or thousands of atoms o individual units: monomers ● Types: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid

<p>● contain carbon (except for carbon dioxide) •● aka macromolecules - made up of hundreds or thousands of atoms o individual units: monomers ● Types: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid</p>
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Monomers of Biomolecules

<p>Nucleic Acid, Carbohydrate, Lipid, &amp; Protein</p>

Nucleic Acid, Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein

<p>Nucleic Acid, Carbohydrate, Lipid, &amp; Protein</p>
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Proteins

• most abundant • proteios (greek) - first place • monomer: amino acids • serve as gene activators, membrane receptors, transporter, clotting factors, etc.

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Classes of Proteins: Structural proteins

<ul><li><p>found in the hair of mammals</p></li><li><p>makes up tendons and ligaments</p></li></ul>
  • found in the hair of mammals

  • makes up tendons and ligaments

<ul><li><p>found in the hair of mammals</p></li><li><p>makes up tendons and ligaments</p></li></ul>
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Classes of Proteins: Contractile proteins

<ul><li><p>provides muscular movement</p></li></ul>
  • provides muscular movement

<ul><li><p>provides muscular movement</p></li></ul>
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Classes of Proteins: Storage proteins

<ul><li><p>serve as biological reserves of metal ions &amp; amino acids used by organisms</p></li></ul>
  • serve as biological reserves of metal ions & amino acids used by organisms

<ul><li><p>serve as biological reserves of metal ions &amp; amino acids used by organisms</p></li></ul>
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Classes of Proteins: Defensive proteins

<ul><li><p>promote protection against foreign bodies</p></li><li><p>antibodies</p></li></ul>
  • promote protection against foreign bodies

  • antibodies

<ul><li><p>promote protection against foreign bodies</p></li><li><p>antibodies</p></li></ul>
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Classes of Proteins: Transport proteins

<ul><li><p>serves the function of moving other materials within an organism enzyme</p></li></ul>
  • serves the function of moving other materials within an organism enzyme

<ul><li><p>serves the function of moving other materials within an organism enzyme</p></li></ul>
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Classes of Proteins: Signal proteins

<ul><li><p>hormones, insulin, enkephalins</p></li><li><p>communicates with the rest of the body w/o blood vessels</p></li></ul><p>Enkephalins</p><ul><li><p>found in the thalamus; help moderate pain by suppressing pain signals in the brain. Insulin</p></li><li><p>produced by the pancreas; allows your body to use glucose for energy and store it for later use. Thyroid hormones</p></li><li><p>important for the proper development of brain, skeleton, and organs.</p></li></ul>
  • hormones, insulin, enkephalins

  • communicates with the rest of the body w/o blood vessels

Enkephalins

  • found in the thalamus; help moderate pain by suppressing pain signals in the brain. Insulin

  • produced by the pancreas; allows your body to use glucose for energy and store it for later use. Thyroid hormones

  • important for the proper development of brain, skeleton, and organs.

<ul><li><p>hormones, insulin, enkephalins</p></li><li><p>communicates with the rest of the body w/o blood vessels</p></li></ul><p>Enkephalins</p><ul><li><p>found in the thalamus; help moderate pain by suppressing pain signals in the brain. Insulin</p></li><li><p>produced by the pancreas; allows your body to use glucose for energy and store it for later use. Thyroid hormones</p></li><li><p>important for the proper development of brain, skeleton, and organs.</p></li></ul>
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Enzyme

<ul><li><p>serves as chemical catalyst, changes rate of reaction</p></li></ul>
  • serves as chemical catalyst, changes rate of reaction

<ul><li><p>serves as chemical catalyst, changes rate of reaction</p></li></ul>
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Substrate

<p>the substance on which an enzyme operates</p>

the substance on which an enzyme operates

<p>the substance on which an enzyme operates</p>
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Active site

<p>proteins that help speed up metabolism, or the chemical reactions in our bodies</p>

proteins that help speed up metabolism, or the chemical reactions in our bodies

<p>proteins that help speed up metabolism, or the chemical reactions in our bodies</p>
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A GUIDE TO THE TWENTY COMMON AMINO ACIDS

knowt flashcard image
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Barone's Essential Amino Acid Mnemonic ^ PVT. TIM HALL ^

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Primary structure

<p>• shows the sequence of amino acids forming polypeptide chains • attached together by covalent or peptide bonds done during translation • one line of amino acids • done via translation in protein synthesis</p>

• shows the sequence of amino acids forming polypeptide chains • attached together by covalent or peptide bonds done during translation • one line of amino acids • done via translation in protein synthesis

<p>• shows the sequence of amino acids forming polypeptide chains • attached together by covalent or peptide bonds done during translation • one line of amino acids • done via translation in protein synthesis</p>
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Secondary structure

<p>• highly regular substructure • can be alpha helix or beta strand • defined by #/H bonds between the main chain peptide groups • in a form of a helix</p>

• highly regular substructure • can be alpha helix or beta strand • defined by #/H bonds between the main chain peptide groups • in a form of a helix

<p>• highly regular substructure • can be alpha helix or beta strand • defined by #/H bonds between the main chain peptide groups • in a form of a helix</p>
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Tertiary structure

<p>• overall 3D shape of polypeptide by a pattern of folding driven by hydrophobic interactions • alpha helices and beta sheets are folded into a compact globule • complicated</p>

• overall 3D shape of polypeptide by a pattern of folding driven by hydrophobic interactions • alpha helices and beta sheets are folded into a compact globule • complicated

<p>• overall 3D shape of polypeptide by a pattern of folding driven by hydrophobic interactions • alpha helices and beta sheets are folded into a compact globule • complicated</p>
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Quaternary structure

<p>• arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex</p>

• arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex

<p>• arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex</p>
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Carbohydrates

• class molecules ranging from small sugar subunits to large polypeptides • main source of energy for living organisms • contains Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen • groups : monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide

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Monosaccharides

<p>• Simple sugars • 1 sugar unit • glucose, fructose, galactose • serve as starting material for some organic molecules such as fat</p>

• Simple sugars • 1 sugar unit • glucose, fructose, galactose • serve as starting material for some organic molecules such as fat

<p>• Simple sugars • 1 sugar unit • glucose, fructose, galactose • serve as starting material for some organic molecules such as fat</p>
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Disaccharide

<p>• complex sugar • made up of 2 molecules joined together • sucrose (glucose fructose), maltose (glucose2), lactose (galactose glucose)</p>

• complex sugar • made up of 2 molecules joined together • sucrose (glucose fructose), maltose (glucose2), lactose (galactose glucose)

<p>• complex sugar • made up of 2 molecules joined together • sucrose (glucose fructose), maltose (glucose2), lactose (galactose glucose)</p>
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Polysaccharides

<p>• complex sugar • made up of chains/branches of monosaccharide • storage and structure • examples: starches</p>

• complex sugar • made up of chains/branches of monosaccharide • storage and structure • examples: starches

<p>• complex sugar • made up of chains/branches of monosaccharide • storage and structure • examples: starches</p>
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Lipids

<p>• from lipos (greek) - fat • includes fats and fat-like substances (phospholipid, wax, steroid, etc.) • consists of Carbon, Hydrogen, &amp; Oxygen</p>

• from lipos (greek) - fat • includes fats and fat-like substances (phospholipid, wax, steroid, etc.) • consists of Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen

<p>• from lipos (greek) - fat • includes fats and fat-like substances (phospholipid, wax, steroid, etc.) • consists of Carbon, Hydrogen, &amp; Oxygen</p>
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Functions of lipids

<ul><li><p>store and produce energy</p></li><li><p>serve as insulation to prevent heat loss</p></li><li><p>protect against extreme cold</p></li><li><p>serve as solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and hormones</p></li><li><p>prevent water loss in skin</p></li></ul>
  • store and produce energy

  • serve as insulation to prevent heat loss

  • protect against extreme cold

  • serve as solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and hormones

  • prevent water loss in skin

<ul><li><p>store and produce energy</p></li><li><p>serve as insulation to prevent heat loss</p></li><li><p>protect against extreme cold</p></li><li><p>serve as solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and hormones</p></li><li><p>prevent water loss in skin</p></li></ul>
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Types of fatty acid

<p>• unsaturated - liquid at room temperature - found mostly in plants - has a double bond - healthier •saturated - solid at room temperature - mostly found in animals - no double bonds</p>

• unsaturated - liquid at room temperature - found mostly in plants - has a double bond - healthier •saturated - solid at room temperature - mostly found in animals - no double bonds

<p>• unsaturated - liquid at room temperature - found mostly in plants - has a double bond - healthier •saturated - solid at room temperature - mostly found in animals - no double bonds</p>
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Other examples of lipids

• Wax • Phospholipids • steroids

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Wax

<ul><li><p>solid of room temperature</p><ul><li><p>high melting point</p></li><li><p>hydrophobic • plants: protective structure • animals: skin and fur maintenance • humans: produced by glands in the outer ear canal</p></li></ul></li></ul>
  • solid of room temperature

    • high melting point

    • hydrophobic • plants: protective structure • animals: skin and fur maintenance • humans: produced by glands in the outer ear canal

<ul><li><p>solid of room temperature</p><ul><li><p>high melting point</p></li><li><p>hydrophobic • plants: protective structure • animals: skin and fur maintenance • humans: produced by glands in the outer ear canal</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Phospholipids

<ul><li><p>a major component of cell membrane</p></li><li><p>2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group</p></li><li><p>responsible for the polar and non-polar characteristics of cell membrane</p></li></ul>
  • a major component of cell membrane

  • 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group

  • responsible for the polar and non-polar characteristics of cell membrane

<ul><li><p>a major component of cell membrane</p></li><li><p>2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group</p></li><li><p>responsible for the polar and non-polar characteristics of cell membrane</p></li></ul>
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Steroids

<ul><li><p>hydrophobic and insoluble in water, don&apos;t resemble lipids since they have     -</p></li><li><p>a structure composed of four fused rings</p></li><li><p>cholesterol most common steroid</p></li></ul>
  • hydrophobic and insoluble in water, don't resemble lipids since they have -

  • a structure composed of four fused rings

  • cholesterol most common steroid

<ul><li><p>hydrophobic and insoluble in water, don&apos;t resemble lipids since they have     -</p></li><li><p>a structure composed of four fused rings</p></li><li><p>cholesterol most common steroid</p></li></ul>
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Nucleic acid

<ul><li><p>serves as genetic information storage molecule</p></li><li><p>provide info to make proteins</p></li><li><p>monomer: nucleotide</p></li><li><p>types: RNA, DNA</p></li></ul><p>When a phosphate group is broken off the tail of an ATP molecule (by hydrolysis) the molecule becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate). That hydrolysis is an exergonic reaction and it yields energy. The bonds holding the phosphate onto ATP are weak.</p>
  • serves as genetic information storage molecule

  • provide info to make proteins

  • monomer: nucleotide

  • types: RNA, DNA

When a phosphate group is broken off the tail of an ATP molecule (by hydrolysis) the molecule becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate). That hydrolysis is an exergonic reaction and it yields energy. The bonds holding the phosphate onto ATP are weak.

<ul><li><p>serves as genetic information storage molecule</p></li><li><p>provide info to make proteins</p></li><li><p>monomer: nucleotide</p></li><li><p>types: RNA, DNA</p></li></ul><p>When a phosphate group is broken off the tail of an ATP molecule (by hydrolysis) the molecule becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate). That hydrolysis is an exergonic reaction and it yields energy. The bonds holding the phosphate onto ATP are weak.</p>
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Difference of DNA & RNA

<p>DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides. RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides. DNA replicates on its own, it is self-replicating. RNA does not replicate on its own.</p>

DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides. RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides. DNA replicates on its own, it is self-replicating. RNA does not replicate on its own.

<p>DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides. RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides. DNA replicates on its own, it is self-replicating. RNA does not replicate on its own.</p>
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