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Almy et al. (1984)

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1

Almy et al. (1984)

Argue that media representations of gender are important because they enter the collective social conscience and they reinforce hegemonic ideas about gender which presents males as dominant and females as subordinate.

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2

Tunstall (2008)

Found that the media focuses on women's domestic, sexual, consumer and marital activities to the exclusion of all else.

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3

How are working women portrayed in the media?

Working women are often seen as unfulfilled, unstable and possibly unable to keep a steady relationship. Also working mothers are often shown to be neglectful of their children.

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4

Tuchman et al (1978)

Used the term 'symbolic annihilation' to describe the way women's achievements are trivialised or unreported by the mass media.

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5

Newbold (2002)

Researched sports on tv and found that the little coverage that women's sports got tended to trivialise or diminish their accomplishments.

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6

Ferguson (1983)

Conducted a content analysis of women's magazines from between 1949 and 1974, and 1979 and 1980. She notes that such magazines are organised around a cult of femininity, which promotes a traditional ideal where excellence is achieved through caring for others, the family, marriage and appearance.

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7

Winship (1987)

Argued that women's magazines generally play a supportive and positive role in the lives of women. Winship argues that such magazines present women with a broader range of options than ever before and that they tackle problems that have been largely ignored by the male-dominated media, such as domestic violence and child abuse.

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8

British teenage magazines

A content analysis found that 70% of the content and images focuses on beauty and fashion, while only 12% focused on education or careers.

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9

Westwood

Claims we are now seeing more transgressive female roles as a result of the media empowering women.

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10

Wolf (1990)

Suggests that the images of women used by the media present women as sex objects to be consumed by the male gaze.

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11

Mulvey

Male gaze

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12

Gill (2008)

Argues that the depiction of women in advertising has changed from women as passive objects of the male gaze, to active, independent and sexually powerful agents.

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13

Gauntlett (2008)

Argues that magazines aimed at young women emphasise that women must do their own thing and be themselves, whilst female pop stars, like Lady Gaga, sing about financial and emotional independence. This set of media messages from a range of sources suggest that women can be tough and independent whilst being 'sexy'.

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14

Easthope (1986)

Argues that a variety of media, especially Hollywood films and computer games, transmit the view that masculinity based on strength, aggression, competition and violence is biologically determined and, therefore, a natural goal for boys to achieve.

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15

Whannel (2002)

David Beckham shows both metrosexual and retributive versins of masculinity. The media are fluid in their representations of him.

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16

POSITIVE representations of men in the media

In Skyfall, we see an ageing James Bond, a more vulnerable hero. This is a more accurate representation of masculinity and age.

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17

POSITIVE representations of men in the media

In The Big Bang Theory, Leonard (a weedy scientist) wins the heart of Penny, despite him not being the stereotypical, handsome guy.

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18

Mort

Argues that the 'metrosexual' male is now emerging in magazines, showing men who are concerned with their appearance but still refrain from traditional male interests.

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19

Gauntlett

Claims that there is an emphasis on men's emotions and problems, which has challenged masculine ideals such as toughness and emotional reticence.

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20

POSITIVE representations of men in the media

Men are represented more often in the media, appearing in the public sphere and carrying higher status than women.

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21

Earp and Katz (1999)

Found that the media have provided us with a steady stream of images which define violence as ordinary or a normal part of masculinity.

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22

Gauntlett

Argues that there are still plenty of magazines aimed at men which sexually objectify women and stress images of hegemonic masculinity.

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23

Gilmore

Argued that the media stereotypes men into 'the provider, the protector and the impregnator'.

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24

Children Now (1999)

Conducted research in the late 90s and asked young boys their opinions of how men were portrayed in the media. -males were violent -generally leaders/confident -athletic -rarely cry/ show vulnerability -shown in the workplace/ barely at home

More than a 1/3 had never seen a man doing domestic chores on TV.

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25

NEGATIVE representations of men in the media

The front covers of men's lifestyle magazines often depicts the ideal body type for men. e.g. 6 pack and abs

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26

Gauntlett (2008)

Found that the mass media today challenge traditional definitions of gender and actually are a force for social change.

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27

Winship (1987)

Suggests women's magazines play a positive role in women's lives. It includes topics that are often ignored by mainstream media, e.g domestic violence.

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28

Ferguson (1983)

Cult of femininity in magazines since WW2.

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29

POSITIVE representations of women in the media

The Hunger Games- Katniss Everdeen subverts the stereotypical representations of women we see in the mainstream media.

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30

POSITIVE representations of women in the media

The Bechdel Test

  1. 2 named female characters

  2. Talk to eachother

  3. About something other than a man

Some films that pass this- Kill Bill 1 & 2, Frozen and Hidden Figures

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31

POSITIVE representations of women in the media

Liberal Feminists acknowledge how the representation of women has improved over the last 30 years.

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32

NEGATIVE representations of women in the media

Marxist Feminists believe that the roots of the stereotypical images of men and women in the media are economic. The alternative images do not fit into mainstream media. e.g. career woman.

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33

NEGATIVE representations of women in the media

Radical Feminists argue that traditional images of masculinity are deliberately transmitted by a male dominated media to keep women oppressed. Creating a false consciousness in women and deterring them from taking opportunities.

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34

NEGATIVE representations of women in the media

Content analysis of teenage magazines in Britain indicates that almost 70% of the content and image focus on beauty and fashion, compared with only 12% focused on education or careers.

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35

NEGATIVE representations of women in the media

Only 4% of traditional news stories explicitly challenge gender stereotypes.

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36

Giroux

Argued that women were represented in a narrow, restricted and distorted range of roles. For example, Disney princesses.

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37

Poole (2000)

Pre 9/11 argued that Islam has always been demonised by Western media. Post 9/11 Islam was thrust into the global media forefront; not only did coverage of Islam drastically increase, particularly in news and entertainment media.

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38

Van Dijk (1991)

Conducted a content analysis on thousands of media outlets over several decades and found that Black people could be categorised into 3 groups:

  1. Ethnic minorities as criminals

  2. Ethnic minorities as a threat

  3. Ethnic minorities as unimportant

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39

Wayne et al. (2007)

Studied the news and found that 50% of news stories concerning young Black people were including crime.

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40

Whitaker (2002)

Found that Muslims are stereotypically presented in the media as "intolerant, misogynistic, violent or cruel and finally strange or different".

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41

Shah (2008)

Argues broadcasters overcompensate for the lack of ethnic minorities, by putting too many Black and Asian faces on screen whether or not they authentically fit into the show. They are used as 'props'. Tokenism.

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42

NEGATIVE representations of ethnic minorities in the media

Citizen Khan- was criticised for being stereotypical and insulting Islam.

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43

POSITIVE representations of ethnic minorities in the media

In 2016, Sadiq Khan ran to become the mayor of London and won with over 50% of the votes. He became London's first Muslim mayor and first ever ethnic minority mayor.

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44

Akinti

The majority of ethnic minority coverage on TV focuses on crime, AIDS, immigration, etc. Van Dijk's content analysis supports it.

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45

Ameli et al. (2007)

Note that media discussion around the issue of the wearing of the hijab and the veil is also problematic, often suggesting that it is somehow an inferior form of dress compared with Western female dress codes and that it is unnecessary and problematic. It is often portrayed as a patriarchal and oppressive form of control that exemplifies the misogyny of Islam and symbolises the alleged subordinate position of women in Islam.

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46

Barnes (1992)

Argues that mass media representations of disability have generally been oppressive and negative. People with disabilities are rarely presented as people with their own identities. Barnes notes several common stereotypes of disabled people.

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Ross

Notes that disability issues have to be sensational, unexpected or heroic in order to be interpreted by journalists as newsworthy and reported on.

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48

Disabled people-In need of pity and charity

Barnes claims that this stereotype has grown in popularity in recent years because of television appeals such as Children in Need.

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49

Disabled people- As victims

Barnes found that when people with disabilities are featured in television drama, they are three times more likely than able-bodied characters to be killed off.

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50

Disabled people- As villains

People with disabilities are often portrayed as criminals or monsters, e.g. villains in James Bond films often have a physical impairment.

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51

Disabled people- As supercripples

Barnes notes that people with disabilities are often portrayed as having special powers or as overcoming their impairment and poverty. In Hollywood films, the impaired male body is often visually represented as a perfect physical specimen in a wheelchair.

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52

Disabled people- As a burden

Television documentaries and news features often focus on carers rather than the people with disabilities.

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53

Disabled people- As sexually abnormal

It is assumed by media representations that people with disabilities do not have sexual feelings or that they are sexually degenerate.

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54

Disabled people- As incapable of participating in community life

Barnes calls this the stereotype of omission and notes that people with disabilities are rarely shown as integral and productive members of the community such as students, teachers or parents.

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55

Disabled people- As ordinary or normal

Barnes argues that the media rarely portray people with disabilities as normal people who just happen to have a disability. They consequently fail to reflect the real, everyday experience of disability.

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56

Roper (2003)

Suggests that mass media representations of disability on telethons can create problems for people with disabilities and suggests that telethons over-rely on 'cute' children who are not that representative of the range of people with disabilities in Britain. Roper argues that telethons are primarily aimed at encouraging the general public to alleviate their guilt and their relief that they are not disabled, by giving money rather than informing the general public of the facts about disability.

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57

Karpf (1988)

Suggests that there is a need for charities, but that telethons act to keep the audience in the position of givers and to keep recipients in their place as grateful and dependent. Karpf notes that telethons are about entertaining the public, rather than helping us to understand the everyday realities of what it is like to have a disability. Consequently, these media representations merely confirm social prejudices about people with disabilities, e.g. that they are dependent on the help of able-bodied people.

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58

Nairn (1988)

Notes the contemporary media coverage of the monarchy portrays their lives as an on-going soap opera, with a glamour and mystique like no other. Furthermore, the mass media's representations of the Queen are focused on creating a sense of national identity. Royal weddings, funerals and other events are regarded as national events.

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59

Newman (2006)

Argues that the media focus very positively on the concerns of the wealthy and the privileged. He notes that the media over-focuses on consumer items such as luxury cars, costly holiday spots and fashion accessories that only the wealthy can afford. He also notes the enormous amount of print and broadcast media dedicated to daily business news and stock market quotations, despite the fact that few people in Britain own stocks and shares.

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60

Newman

Argues when the media do focus on the working class it is to label them as a problem. Youth subcultures are a subject of moral panic

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61

The middle class-The Daily Mail

Newspapers like the Daily Mail are specifically aimed at the middle class. The content of the Daily Mail suggests journalists believe that the middle classes of middle England are generally anxious about the decline of moral standards in society and that they are proud of their British identity and heritage. It is assumed that their readership feels threatened by alien influences such as the Euro, asylum seekers and terrorism. Consequently, newspapers, such as the Daily Mail, often crusade on behalf of the middle classes and initiate moral panics on issues such as video nasties, paedophilia and asylum seekers.

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62

The working class-The Sun/Daily Star

The content of newspapers such as The Sun and the Daily Star assumes that working class audiences want to read about celebrity gossip and lifestyles, trivial human interest stories and sport.

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63

Curran and Seaton (2010)

Note that newspapers aimed at working class audiences assume that they are uninterested in serious analysis of either the political or social organisation of British society. Political debate is often reduced simplistically to conflict between personalities.

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64

Newman

Argues that when the news media turn their attention to the most destitute, the portrayals are often negative or stereotypical. Often, the poor are portrayed in statistical rather than in human terms by news bulletins that focus on the numbers unemployed or on benefits, rather than the individual suffering and personal indignities of poverty.

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65

McKendrick et al (2008)

Studied a week's output of mainstream media in 2007 and concluded that coverage of poverty is marginal in British media, in that the causes and consequences of poverty were very rarely explored across the news, documentaries or drama. Dramas such as Shameless presented a sanitised picture of poverty, despite featuring characters who were economically deprived, whilst family issue-based programmes such as The Jeremy Kyle Show treated poverty as an aspect of entertainment.

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66

Cohen

Notes that the media often fails to see the connection between deprivation and wealth.

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67

Batchelor

Found that being gay was not generally integrated into mainstream media representations. Rather, when it did appear, e.g. in television drama, it was represented mainly as a source of anxiety or embarrassment, or it was seen as a target for teasing and bullying. The study also found that, in mainstream young people's media, lesbianism was completely invisible.

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68

Gerbner (2002)

Argues that the media participate in the symbolic annihilation of gays and lesbians by negatively stereotyping them, by rarely portraying them realistically, or by not portraying them at all.

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69

Craig (1992)

Suggests that when homosexual characters are portrayed in the media, e.g. in popular drama, they are often stereotyped as having particular amusing or negative psychological and social characteristics.

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70

Watney

Illustrated how British news coverage of AIDS in the 1980s stereotyped gay people as carriers of a gay plague. He argues that news coverage of AIDS reflected mainstream society's fear and dislike of the gay community and resulted in unsympathetic accounts that strongly implied that homosexual AIDS sufferers only had their own 'immoral and unnatural' behaviour to blame for their condition or death.

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71

Gauntlett

Argues that lesbian, gay and bisexual people are still under-represented in much of the mainstream media, but things are slowly changing for the better. Gauntlett suggests that tolerance of sexual diversity is slowly growing in society, and images of diverse sexual identities with which audiences are unfamiliar may assist in making the population generally more comfortable with these alternative sexual lifestyles.

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72

Wayne et al (2008)

Found that young people are mainly represented as a threat. They found that it was very rare to see a youth's opinion or perspective in the media. This pushes a one-dimensional picture of youth, that encourages fear and a lack of understanding. Moreover, they argue that this distracts from the real problems facing youth today, e.g homeless, unemployment and mental health.

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73

Newman (2006)

Notes that upper class and middle class elderly people are often portrayed in television and film dramas as occupying high-status roles as world leaders, judges, politicians, experts and business executives. Moreover, news programmes seem to work on the assumption that an older male with grey in his hair and lines on his face somehow exudes the necessary authority to impart the news. AO3-However, female newscasters, such as Anna Ford, have long complained that these older men are often paired with attractive young females, while older women newsreaders are often exiled to radio. Leading female film and television stars are also often relegated to character parts once their looks and bodies are perceived to be on the wane, which seems to be after the age of 40.

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74

Old Media

Refers to traditional forms of media, such as print media, tv and radio.

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75

New Media

Digital media that are interactive, incorporate two-way communication and involve some form of computing.

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Digitality

Uses computers and data is in binary form.

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Interactivity

People can engage and interact in some way.

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Participatory Culture

Media content is shaped by consumer involvement

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79

Collective Intelligence

Creates a 'buzz' amongst users, who have a range of knowledge instantly available

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80

Hypertextuality

Web of connections between different parts of the media

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81

Dispersal

Less centralised and more focused on individual choices

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82

Digital Underclass

Vulnerable populations who are infrequent (or non) internet users

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83

Boyle (2007)

Points out that the younger generation have grown up with new media and have been taught how to use it through peers, at school and by themselves at home. They are more likely to consume media through a variety of formats and they are 10x more likely to go online via their phones than those aged 55+.

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84

Ofcom (2012, 2014)

16-24 year olds are: -greater internet users and spend more time online -more likely to have internet at home -more likely to use and own a smartphone -more aware and attached to new technology -more likely to see and use the internet as a pastime -more likely to get news from their phones

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85

Boyle (2007)- Evaluation

Is this true a decade later? And if this isn't true then why is this the case?

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86

Ofcom (2012, 2014)- Evaluation

So what? What is the point of knowing this? What can a sociologist do with this information?

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87

Jones (2010)

Found that 16-24 year olds from disadvantaged backgrounds were relatively infrequent users of the internet.

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88

Jones (2010)- Evaluation

Is this true more than a decade on? Have mobile contracts and internet become accessible to every social class in the UK? Who may still miss out?

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89

Li and Kirkup (2007)

Self report studies on 220 Chinese and 245 British students. Men used emails and chat rooms more than females and were also more confident in their computer skills, expressing an opinion of it being a male activity and skill.

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90

Li and Kirkup (2007)- Evaluation

Cannot base this study of two technologically advanced countries to the rest of the world.

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91

Neophiliacs/Optimists

-More informed consumers -Wider choices (increase of e-commerce) -More participation -Greater democracy -More access to more information -Global village -Social life in interactions enhanced

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92

Cultural Pessimists

-Problems with validity -Cultural and media imperialism -Threat to democracy -Powerful companies -Censorship and control -Lack of regulation -Commercialisation -Less consumer choice -More surveillance -Undermining human relations

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93

Keen (2008)

Argues that the global nature of new media means that it's difficult to regulate content

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94

Malicious Communications Act 1988

Online trolling prosecuted- it is an offence to send an indecent, offensive or threatening letter, electronic communication or other article to another person.

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95

Cyber Strategy 2022

Introduced by the UK government to tackle threat of cyber crime through new media

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96

Examples of censorship

-Prosecutions of people trolling Tom Daley for his bronze medal in the 2012 Olympics -Also, following the final of Euro 2020, 3 England players were trolled with racist abuse

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97

Examples of censorship

-Edward Snowden became a fugitive following release of papers detailing extent of surveillance of US citizens

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98

Cambridge Analytica

Data analytics firm got data from 87 million Facebook users. Shared data with Trump presidential campaign to craft target ads. Camb. Analytica got data from Professor who made an app that linked to FB. Users didn't know their info would be used this way.

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99

Cornford and Robbins (1999)

New media evolved from existing media.

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100

Jenkins (2008)

Most new media platforms are an extension of existing media giants e.g. Disney

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