unit 1 ap human geo

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Physical Geography

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Tags and Description

Geography

60 Terms

1

Physical Geography

study of natural processes and the distribution of features in the environment (ex: plants, animals, climate )

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2

Human Geography

the study of events and processes that have shaped how humans understand, use, and alter Earth (ex: study how human organize themselves, socially, economically, and politically and impact on environment)

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3

spatial perspective

refers to where something occurs and why. (ex: study how people live and organize themselves and why human events have occurred where they are)

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4

ecological perspective

relationships between living things and their environments (ex: humans' dependence on ecosystems for food and water)

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5

location

the position that something occupies on Earth's surface

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6

relative location

A description of where a place is in relation to other places/features (ex: Budapest is 134 miles southeast of Vienna, Austria)

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7

place

Location on Earth recognized by its human and physical features. (ex: climate, landform, languages, religions, etc)

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8

mental maps

Internalized representations of portions of Earth's surface. Factors such as experience, age, place of living contribute to the accuracy (ex: mental map of the school and to get to King Sooper's)

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9

site

refers to a place's absolute location and its physical features (ex: climate, landform, and resources)

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10

situation

Place's location in relation to other places or its surrounding features (ex:transportation routes, economic and cultural ties, and political associations)

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11

space

Area between two or more things on Earth's surface. Used by geographers to describe the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place (ex: space in between cities/states)

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12

distribution (or distributed)

ways in which things are arranged within a given space (ex: organization of people, places, and environments on Earth)

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13

density

number of people, animals, or objects in a specific area (ex: population density of a large city compared to a rural area

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14

pattern

How things are arranged in a particular space (ex: patterns of urban settlement/traffic or distribution of fast-food restaurants in a town)

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15

flow (movement)

Movement of people, goods, and info and the social, political, economic, and cultural effects of these on society

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16

environmental determinism

human behavior is largely controlled by the physical environment (ex: a region's climate and soil fertility dictate how a society develops as it adapts to the environment)

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17

Possibilism

theory argues that humans have more ability to produce a result, than environmental determinism would suggest (ex: ppl build whole cities in places that were once too barren and dry)

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18

Sustainability

the use of Earth's land and natural resources in ways that ensure they will continue to be available in the future (ex: solar, wind energy, and hydropower)

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19

scale (large vs. small)

area of the world being studied. Large- small geographic area with more details (ex: rising sea level on West Coast) Small- larger geographic area like the world, fewer details (ex: Sea levels across the planet)

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20

region

An area of Earth's surface with certain characteristics that make it distinct from other areas (ex: The West, Midwest, South are regions in the U.S.)

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21

formal region

An area that has one or more shared traits. (ex: country, state, province)

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22

functional region

An area organized by its function around a focal point, or the center of an interest or activity. (ex: Los Angeles)

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23

Node

The focus of the region (ex: Downtown of a city)

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24

perceptual/vernacular region

A type of region that reflects people's attitudes and feelings about a place. (ex: Midwest- seen as with many farms and nice people)

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25

Globalization

The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes on a worldwide scale (ex: Social media spreads cultural ideas faster)

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26

sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (ex: solar energy, wind energy)

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27

human-environment interaction

How people work together with and how they function in their environment (ex: deforestation, oil and gas drilling, littering)

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28

geo-inquiry process

Ask, collect, visualize, create, and act. (ex: Where? Why there? Why care?)

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29

quantitative data

Info measured by numbers (ex: Population of a city)

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30

qualitative data

Interpretations of data sources (ex: media reports, travel narratives, policy documents, personal interviews, landscape analysis, and visuals)

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31

Census

An official count of the number of people in a defined area

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32

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Sophisticated mapping software systems that capture, store, organizes, and display geographic data that can be used to configure both simple and complex maps (ex: Map showing the traffic of downtown Toronto has data of the streets, buildings, and traffic)

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33

Topography

Shape and features of land surfaces (ex: elevation, mountains, oceans)

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34

remote sensing

Method of collecting data remotely or without making physical contact (ex: Satellites- can be used to capture ice caps melting, aircraft-based sensors)

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35

Geographic Positioning System (GPS)

An integrated network of at least 31 satellites in the U.S. system that orbit Earth and transmit location data to handheld receivers. Useful for navigation (Ex: Google Maps)

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36

Cartography

The study and creation of maps (ex: making an updated map of the world)

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37

absolute distance

Distance that can be measured using a standard unit of length (ex: California to New York is 2,000 miles)

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38

relative distance

Distance measured in time or money (ex: Five hours from Hawaii to California and costs $200-$300)

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39

absolute direction

North, south, east, and west (ex: Mexico is South of the U.S.)

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40

relative direction

Left, right, up, down, front, and behind (ex: South America is below North America)

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41

map scale

Mathematical relationship between the size of a map and the part of the real world it shows (ex: Can be expressed as a representative fraction: ratio, written scale, or graphically)

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42

Mercator map projection

shows true direction and is good for navigating BUT distorts area and size near the poles

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43

Gall-Peters Projection

True direction and area relatively precise BUT distorts shape and continents look elongated

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44

Robinson Projection

Globe-like that "looks real" distorts size and shape but not too much, imprecise measurements BUT extreme distortion at the poles; flat on poles and compressed near the equator

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45

Azimuthal Projection

Preserves direction, when used from the point of the North Pole no country is seen as center BUT distorts shape and area, only shows one half of earth

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46

Reference Maps

Generalized sources of geographic data and focus on location (ex: might show streets, city/city features, countries)

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47

Thematic Maps

Map with a theme or specific purpose and focus on the relationship among geographic data (ex: spread of disease across a city, population density)

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48

Isoline Map

Map with lines that connect data points of same value, used to show particular characteristics of an area (ex: elevation, temp, or precipitation)

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49

Graduated/Proportional Symbol Map

Map that groups quantities into classes of similar values (ex: Population, earthquake magnitude)

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50

cartogram

Map that shows the relative size of an area based on a particular attribute (ex: Population, energy consumption)

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51

Dot Distribution Map

Dots used to show locations of specific observations or events (ex: statistics like crimes, births, car accidents)

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52

Chloropeth Map

Uses color or shading to display quantitative data in preset regions such as counties, provinces, or countries (ex: demographics, election results)

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53

Gravity Model

mathematical model which was devised to represent the relative strength of a bond between two places.

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54

distance decay

The effect of distance on interactions. The farther away something is from another, the less interaction they'll have. The closer things are, the more they are related. (ex: Closer you are to an earthquake the more likely you are to be affected)

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55

time-space compression

Describes the processes causing the relative distance between places to shrink. (ex: Modern transportation reduce travel times, internet easier to communicate with others anywhere)

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56

friction of distance

Concept states that distance requires time, effort, and cost to overcome. (ex: Choosing a grocery store closest to where you live is more convenient)

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57

World Systems Theory

Helps explain the uneven economic development among countries. Spatial and functional relationships between countries in the world economy.

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58

core countries

Wealthy Countries with good education, advanced technology, stable governments, strong political alliances, infrastructure that supports economic activity, good transportation, communication networks, economically politically dominant, and control of the global market. (ex: U.S., Canada, Japan)

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59

periphery countries

the least developed and least powerful nations; often exploited by the core countries as sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets

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60

semi-periphery

Countries in the process of industrializing, active in manufacturing and exporting goods, better connections, better transportation and communication networks, potential to grow into core, political and economic link between the two. (Ex: China, Mexico, Indonesia)

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