ANS 150 Exam 3 Domestication/Beef and Dairy Cattle Production

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Cultural and Biological

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Cultural and Biological

What are the two distinct processes of domestication?

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resembles a form of genetic selection in that the parent animals (1st domesticated) becomes isolated from its wild population

Describe the biological process of domestication

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genetic drift (active or passive)

What does biological process of domestication lead to?

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involves changes in how the animal becomes included in the social structure of humans. what role does it play in its interactions with humans.

Describe the cultural process of domestication

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Symbiotic

Domestication is what type of relationship?

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symbiosis

all conditions of permanent living-together of two different species

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subordinate (submissive), dominant

Guest is _____ Host is_____

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they both derive equal benefits without domination by one partner

What is perfect symbiosis?

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FALSE! this is very very rare

True or False: Perfect symbiosis is very common

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Dmitry Belyaev, a russian scientists

Who hypothesized tamability?

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Wild Foxes

What animals did Belyaev experiment his hypothesis on?

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--> initiated by humans --> unable to breed for behavioral traits

Before his idea of tamability, what did humans believe domestication to be?

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20 generations

For how many generations did Belyaev test his hypothesis?

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Class III: least domesticated, bite/flee when approached or stroked Class II: allow handling/pets, no emotion or friendly response Class I: friendly, approachable, wagging tails, whining Class IE: 'Domesticated Elite' eager to establish human contact, lick/sniff experimenters

Describe the four classes of domestication in Belyaev's foxes.

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Blazed forehead, curled tail, floppy ears, piebald coat, curly/wavy hair, dwarf/giants

What are some of the phenotypic traits associated with domestication?

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"higher order" genes

What is tamability controlled by?

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increases it, animals see/hear later in life

How does domestication effect sight and hearing age?

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Domestication Age

When the domestication of each species is thought to have begun.

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There is a Direct Positive relationship

Is there a positive or negative relationship between a Species' domestication age and the frequency (%) of phenotypic traits associated with domestication (Belyaev) that they possess?

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4500 B.C. (6000-6500 years ago)

When were cattle believed to have domesticated?

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Auruch

What were wild ancestors of cattle called?

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Pockets through Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and South Asia/ India. This tells us that people became more stationary and less nomadic.

Where did domestication of cattle begin and what does this tell you about the habits of human development?

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Religion and Food

What were the two main reasons for original domestication?

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European and Asian Explorers

Who brought cattle domestication to the Americas, New Zealand, and Australia?

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914,246

What is the number of total beef operations in the United States?

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89.9 Million

What is the total beef inventory in the United States?

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$76.3 Billion

What is Gross income of beef cattle for the United States?

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Texas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota

What are the top producing states for number of beef cows?

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Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, California, Oklahoma

What are the top producing states for market cattle sold?

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NC is more about cow/calf production, so we sell smaller cows which means smaller income for the smaller weight sold.

Why isn't North Carolina a major beef market/production state?

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Piedmont, foothills

Where in NC are beef cattle operations mostly located?

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Urban Sprawl

What is causing a decline in the number of beef cattle operations?

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Total beef operations: 18,413

What is NC's total beef operations?

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Total beef inventory: 776, 271

What is NC's total beef inventory?

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Gross Income: $275 million

What is NC's total gross income for beef cattle production?

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Total operations of Market Share: 2%

What is the % of NC's total operations of market share in US?

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Total inventory of market share: 0.9%

What is the % of NC's total inventory market share in US?

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Gross income of market share: 0.4%

What is the % of NC's gross income of market share in US?

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Mild winters, can grow both cool and warm season grasses for foraging.

What is an advantage of beef cattle production in NC?

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social aggression and vocalizations

What are two types of behavior patterns?

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pecking order

What does social aggression determine?

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Swine waste management

Why has there been a large influx in cattle entering the southeastern part of NC?

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Turn roughages into meat/usable products

What is an advantage to cattle?

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polled

'Bunt' occurs in what kind of cattle?

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horned

"Hook" occurs in what kind of cattle?

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head down, ears back with surface pointed to the side

Describe a submissive cattle stance

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feet underneath and head down, ears back inner surface down and back

Describe a dominant cattle stance

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whoever retreats first is submissive and whoever wins more (NOT ALL) interactions

What determines if a cow is dominant/submissive?

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"Mm" --> low amplitude, between cow and calf "mm(h)" --> higher amplitude, frustration (isolated) "(M)enh" --> very high amplitude sound given when animals are threatening or when calves are hungry

Describe the three main types of cattle vocalization.

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Bos taurus

European breeds of cattle

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Bos indicus

Zebu breeds of cattle

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10-15 months

When do Bos taurus breeds reach puberty?

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17-27 months

When do Bos indicus reach puberty?

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minimum age and weight

What must be achieved for puberty to occur?

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2 years old

When is the ideal first time calving age?

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14-15 months

When do most operations usually breed heifers?

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Don't want the bulls to get "over-used." The average ratio is 30/1

Why are cow/bull ratios important, and what is the average cow/bull ratio?

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21 Days

How long is the Estrous Cycle?

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12-18 hours

What is duration of estrus?

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Cows ovulate AFTER estrus

Why is it good/beneficial to artificially inseminate cows?

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TRUE

True or False: Scrotal circumference of bulls is positively correlated to sperm production and serving capacity.

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Prostaglandins and (synthetic) Progesterone

What are the two very effective types of products on the market for controlling estrus in beef cattle?

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oral implant or intravaginally --> give for 14 days

What are ways to give cows progesterone and for how long should you give it?

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14 days apart and it is given if estrus randomly starts showing.

How far apart are prostaglandin shots given and why is it given?

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284 days (270-280 days)

What is the average length of gestation among beef cattle?

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rectal palpation --> rump to crown -->estimate length to determine fetal age

How is pregnancy diagnosed?

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Theriogenologist

Studies Reproduction

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not enough nutrition can lead to low birth weights, which can lead to death. the most rapid growth occurs in the last 3 months.

What is the purpose of increasing nutrition in the last 3 months of gestation?

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Dystocia

Calving difficultly

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The umbilical chord could easily break, suffocating the calf.

Why is it dangerous for a calf to be in the backwards position?

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You could potentially harm the calf or affect the mobility or nursing ability of the cow.

Why is it important to conduct the 3 tests before assisting in parturition?

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Test 1: Pull on both legs, see if it can passthrough the pelvic cavity Test 2: can you pull out the first leg a hand-length away from the vulva Test 3: can you pull the second leg a hand-length away from the vulva

What are the three ways to test if it is okay to pull the calf?

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Call a vet, the cow needs a c-section

What should you do if the calf is breached?

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TRUE

TRUE or FALSE: if a calf has its arms are head turned/in the wrong position, you can actually reach in and turn the arms or head

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The first milk produced for 24 hours, has essential antibodies, lots of energy and nutrients.

What is colostrum?

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Colostrum

What do young animals get passive immunity from?

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It is cleaned, cut, and treated with an iodine solution.

What happens to the umbilical cord after parturition?

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to transport the milk directly into the omasum and abomasum.

What is the purpose of the esophageal groove?

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colostrum, clean/cut umbilical cord, vaccinations, castration

What are the important steps of caring for a calf?

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Let mom and baby be.

Is it good to let the young be or be super attentive at all times?

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7 months (205 days)

For how long do beef cows lactate?

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To get one calf per year

What is the goal of rebreeding?

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improving pasture quality or supplemental feeding

How can you achieve enhanced nutrition for beef cows through their lactational period?

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Lactation

When does rebreeding and part of gestation occur?

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