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1

percentile

percent of values strictly less than or equal to

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2

Cumulative relative frequency graph

displays the cumulative relative frequency of each class of a frequency distribution

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3

z-score

(value-mean)/SD; tells number of standard deviation above or below the mean; data above the mean has a positive value while data below the mean has a negative value; distribution always has mean 0 and SD 1

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4

Z-score interpretation

__Context__ is |__z__| standard deviations __above/below__ the mean.

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5

add or subtract the same value a from each value

shape: same; center: +/- a; variability: same

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6

Multiply or divide the same value b from each value

shape: same; center: x// b; variability: x// b

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7

density curve

shows probability, has area=1, shows the overall pattern of large observations with a smooth curve, always above or on the x-axis, outliers are not described on the curve

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8

skew left

median>mean; tail to the left

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9

skew right

median<mean; tail to the right

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10

normal curve

can find the percentage of values that fall on standard deviation bounds; unusual or rare is over 2 standard deviations away, notation: N(mean,SD)

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11

distribution of standardized scores (z-scores)

N(0,1)

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