Clinical Psych Ch 7 Terms

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scientific behaviorism

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scientific behaviorism

holds the premise that psychology is an objective, natural science, and therefore is the study of observable and measurable human (and animal) behavior

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behavior therapy

the therapeutic application of scientific behaviorism

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the subjective observation of one’s own mental state

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the pairing of a positive (and often incompatible) stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a negative or undesirable response (e.g., fear)

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applied behavior analysis

a clinical term referring to a behavioral approach based on operant conditioning principles

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operant conditioning (or instrumental condtioning)

a form of behavior modification that involves manipulation of behavioral antecedents and consequences

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positive reinforcement

occurs when a specific behavior is followed by Thorndike’s satisfier, and therefore the likelihood of the specific behavior is strengthened

  • occurs when a stimulus is applied that increases the likelihood of the behavior it follows

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stimulus-response (SR) theory

no cognitive or covert intervening variables mediate the relationship between the stimulus and response

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neobehavioristic mediational SR model

involves classical conditioning principles

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classical conditioning (or respondent conditioning)

involves an association or linking of one environmental stimulus with another

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unconditioned stimulus

one that naturally produces a specific physical-emotional response

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positive punishment (aka punishment or aversive conditioning)

occurs when a stimulus is applied (usually called an aversive stimulus) that reduces the likelihood of the behavior it follows

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negative punishment (aka response cost)

occurs when the removal of a stimulus decreases the likelihood of the behavior it follows

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negative reinforcement

occurs when the removal of an aversive stimulus increases the likelihood of the behavior it follows

  • the strengthening of a behavioral response by reducing or eliminating an aversive stimulus (like fear and anxiety)

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unconditioned response

a reflexive fear response

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conditioned response

response to the conditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus

involves a learned association with the unconditioned stimulus

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stimulus generalization

the extension or generalization of a conditioned fear response to new settings, situations, or objects

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stimulus discrimination

occurs when a new or different stimulus doesn’t elicit a conditioned fear response

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involves the gradual elimination of a conditioned response

  • occurs when a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without a previously associated unconditioned stimulus

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spontaneous recovery

occurs when an old response suddenly returns after having been successfully extinguished or counterconditioned

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functional behavior assessment (FBA)

formal assessment of behavior contingencies

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behavioral ABCs

antecedents, behavior, consequences

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everything that happens just before maladaptive behavior is observed

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the problem as defined in concrete behavioral terms; e.g., rather than being called an “anger problem” it’s “yelling or swearing six times a day and punching others twice daily”)

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everything that happens immediately following the problem behavior occurs

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operational definitions

specific, measurable characteristics of client symptoms and goals are crucial behavioral assessment components

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occurs when clients observe and record their own behaviors

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contingency management (CM)

an analysis of naturally occurring behavioral consequences in the client’s physical and social environments

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backward behavior modification

reinforcing undesirable behaviors and extinguishing desirable behaviors

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcement is provided every time the desired (target) behavioral response occurs

  • ex. a child gets a star for every completed homework assignment

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fixed ratio reinforcement

reinforcement is provided after a predetermined number of desired behaviors

  • ex. a child gets a star after every fourth completed homework assignment

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fixed interval reinforcement

reinforcement is provided after a predetermined time period, as long as the target behavior has occurred at least once

  • ex. a child gets a star each week, as long as one homework assignment was completed

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variable ratio reinforcement

reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable number of target behaviors occur

  • ex. a child gets a star after having completed an unpredictable number of homework assignments (surprise rewards)

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variable interval reinforcement

reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable time period, as long as the target behavior has occurred at least once

  • ex. a child gets a star after unpredictable time periods pass (sometimes after 1 day; other times 3 days; other times 1 week; etc.)

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token economy

patients or students earn points or poker chips (aka symbolic rewards) for positive or desirable behaviors

  • tokens function like money, to obtain goods (e.g., goof or toys) or privileges (e.g., computer or recreational time

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in an ideal behavioral setting, reinforcements and punishments would be tightly controlled and then, after desirable behavior patterns are well established, behavioral contingencies would be slowly decreased

  • fading helps to generalize learning from over time and across settings

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aversive conditioning

term used to describe the use of punishment for behavior modification purposes

  • can reduce undesirable or maladaptive behavior

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behavioral activation (activity scheduling)

working with clients to schedule activities that increase the rate of naturally occurring positive reinforcements

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progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)

  • initially based on the assumption that muscular tension is an underlying cause of a variety of mental and emotional problems

  • currently conceptualized as either a counterconditioning or extinction procedure

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systematic desensitization

a combination of Jones’s deconditioning approach and Jacobson’s PMR procedure

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subjective units of distress (SUDs)

a measuring system in which clients rate each fear-inducing situation or object on a 0 to 100 scale (0 = no distress; 100 = total distress)

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exposure treatment

based on the principle that clients are best treated by exposure to the very thing they want to avoid (i.e., the stimulus that evokes intense fear, anxiety, or other painful emotions)

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imaginal exposure

mental imagery

  • allows clients to complete treatment without leaving their therapist’s office

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in vivo exposure

direct exposure to the feared stimulus

  • can be more complex (e.g., going to a dental office to provide exposure for a client with a dental phobia)

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massed exposure

clients are directly exposed to feared stimuli during a single prolonged session (e.g., one 3-hour session)`

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spaced exposure

clients are slowly and incrementally exposed to feared stimuli during a series of shorter sessions (such as five 1-hour sessions)

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virtual reality exposure

a procedure wherein clients are immersed in a real-time computer-generated virtual environment

  • has been empirically evaluated as an alternative to imaginal or in vivo exposure in cases of acrophobia (fear of heights), flight phobia, spider phobia, and other anxiety disorders

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interoceptive exposure

identical to other exposure techniques except that the target exposure stimuli are internal physical cues or somatic sensations

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response prevention

involves therapists guiding and supporting clients to not engage in an avoidance response

  • ex. clients with OCD are prevented from washing their hands following exposure to a “contaminated” object

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participant modeling

social imitation

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skills training

an approach primarily based on skill deficit psychopathology models; it involves using behavioral techniques to teach clients new skills

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a social competence that involves being able to stand up for your rights, while not infringing on the rights of others

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individuals behave submissively; they say yes when they want to say no, avoid speaking up and asking for instructions or directions, and let others take advantage of them

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individuals dominate others, trying to get their way through coercive means

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individuals speak up, express feelings, and actively seek to meet their own needs without dominating others

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assertiveness training

individual, group, or self-help treatment for social difficulties

  • common social behaviors targeted in assertiveness training are

    • (a) introducing oneself to strangers

    • (b) giving and receiving compliments

    • (c) saying no to requests from others

    • (d) making requests of others

    • (e) speaking up or voicing an opinion

    • (f) maintaining social conversations

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teaching clients to use assertive eye contact, body posture, voice tone, and verbal delivery

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therapists or group members give clients feedback regarding other’s efforts at assertive behavior

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behavior rehearsal or role playing

clients practice assertive behaviors, such as asking for help or expressing disagreement

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therapists whisper instructions in the client’s ear as role-play progresses

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therapists or group members demonstrate appropriate assertive behaviors

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social reinforcement

therapists or group members offer positive feedback and support for improved assertive behaviors

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relaxation training

relaxation training can reduce anxiety in social situations and increase skill acquisition

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problem-solving therapy (PST)

behavior treatment that focuses on how to approach and solve personal problems

  • two main components

    • problem orientation

    • problem-solving style

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problem orientation

involves teaching clients to have positive attitudes toward problem solving

  • attitudes include: (a) seeing problems as a challenge or opportunity, (b) seeing problems as solvable, (c) believing in one’s own ability to solve problems, and (d) recognizing that effective problem solving requires time and effort

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problem-solving style

refers to how individuals approach social problems

  • in PST, clients taught a rational problem-solving style that includes four steps

    • problem definition, generating alternatives, decision-making, solution implementation and verification

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problem definition

clarifying a problem, identifying goals, and identifying obstacles

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generating alternatives

brainstorming potential solutions for overcoming obstacles and solving the problem

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predicting likely outcomes, conducting a cost-benefit analysis, and developing a solution plan (means-ends thinking or consequential thinking are alternative names for this part of the process)

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solution implementation and verification

trying out the solution, monitoring outcomes, and determining success

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harm reduction

help clients consider less violent or less risky behaviors

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