Bio160 Exam 2

studied byStudied by 208 people
5.0(3)
get a hint
hint

Energy

1 / 119

Tags and Description

Biology

Cells

UTK Bio160 exam 2

120 Terms

1

Energy

capacity to cause change

New cards
2

first law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

New cards
3

potential energy

stored energy

New cards
4

kinetic energy

energy of motion

New cards
5

potential energy types

location (gravitational) and structure (chemical bonds)

New cards
6

kinetic energy types

light, sound, mechanical, and thermal

New cards
7

high potential energy

shared electrons far from positively charged nuclei

New cards
8

nonpolar

long, weak bonds

New cards
9

polar

short, strong bonds

New cards
10

spontaneous reaction equation

ΔG=ΔH-TΔS

New cards
11

ΔG

change in Gibbs energy

New cards
12

ΔH

change in enthalpy

New cards
13

ΔS

change in entropy

New cards
14

T

temperature in degrees Kelvin

New cards
15

enthalpy

total energy in a molecule, cause of a molecules pressure and volume

New cards
16

ΔH is negative

products have less potential energy, heat is released

New cards
17

ΔH is positive

products have more potential energy, heat is absorbed

New cards
18

entropy

amount of disorder (larger=more disordered)

New cards
19

ΔS is negative

products more ordered than reactants (A+B=AB)

New cards
20

ΔS is positive

products more disordered than reactants (AB=A+B)

New cards
21

reaction is always spontaneous

enthalpy decreases and entropy increases

New cards
22

reaction is always nonspontaneous

enthalpy increases and entropy decreases

New cards
23

depends on exact values and temperature

enthalpy increases and entropy increases

New cards
24

depends on exact values and temperature

enthalpy decreases and entropy decreases

New cards
25

exergonic reaction

releases energy (oxidation)

New cards
26

endergonic reaction

requires energy (reduction)

New cards
27

energetic coupling

chemical energy released from one reaction to drive another

New cards
28

reduction reaction

gain of one or more electrons

New cards
29

oxidation reaction

loss of one or more electrons

New cards
30

oxidized molecule

loses a proton

New cards
31

reduced molecule

gains a proton

New cards
32

enzymes

lower the activation energy barrier

New cards
33

Enzyme regulation

temperature, pH, protein cleavage, phosphorylation

New cards
34

competitive inhibition

inhibitor blocks substrate from going into active site

New cards
35

allosteric inhibition

inhibitor goes into different active site and changes the active site for the substrate

New cards
36

allosteric regulation

regulatory molecule binds to separate spot to open active site for the substrate

New cards
37

cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

New cards
38

cellular respiration oxidation

C6H12O6 --> 6CO2

New cards
39

cellular respiration reduction

6O2 --> 6H2O

New cards
40

stages of cellular respiration

glycolysis, pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

New cards
41

glycolysis input

1 glucose, 2 ATP, 4 ADP, 2 NAD+

New cards
42

glycolysis output + net atp

2 pyruvate, 4ATP, 2 ADP, 2 NADH, 2 ATP

New cards
43

Glycolysis occurs in the

cytoplasm

New cards
44

pyruvate processing input

2 pyruvate, 2 NAD+, 2 CoA

New cards
45

pyruvate processing output

2 CO2, 2 NADH, 2 Acetyl CoA

New cards
46

pyruvate processing occurs in the

mitochondrial matrix or cytoplasm of prokaryotes

New cards
47

citric acid cycle input

2 acetyl CoA, 2 ADP, 6 NAD+, 2 FAD

New cards
48

citric acid cycle output

4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 CoA

New cards
49

citric acid cycle occurs in

mitochondrial matrix or cytoplasm of prokaryotes

New cards
50

oxidative phosphorylation input

2 FADH2, 10 NADH, 6 O2, 25-32 ADP

New cards
51

oxidative phosphorylation output

2 FAD, 10 NAD+, 6 H2O, 25-32 ATP

New cards
52

oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the

inner mitochondrial membrane or plasma membrane of prokaryotes

New cards
53

Electron Transport Chain occurs in the

inner mitochondrial membrane called cristae

New cards
54

regulating the activity of phosphofructokinase

glycolysis can be regulated by

New cards
55

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) allosteric inhibitor

ATP

New cards
56

PFK affinity for ATP

active site has higher affinity for ATP than allosteric site

New cards
57

feedback inhibition

regulates glycolysis by conserving glucose when ATP is high

New cards
58

fermentation

the final electron acceptor is absent and only produces 2 ATP

New cards
59

Photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

New cards
60

3 basic types of photosynthetic organisms

plants, photosynthetic protists, photosynthetic bacteria

New cards
61

photosystem II

capture sunlight, split water, O2 byproduct

New cards
62

photosystem I

convert CO2 into glucose

New cards
63

photosystem

a cluster of a few hundred pigment molecules that function as a light-gathering antenna

New cards
64

photosystem I and II

located in the thylakoid membrane

New cards
65

light reaction input

light, H2O, ADP, NADP+

New cards
66

light reaction output

O2, NADPH, ATP

New cards
67

three phases of the calvin cycle

fixation, reduction, regeneration

New cards
68

calvin cycle input

CO2, ATP, NADPH

New cards
69

calvin cycle output

ADP, NADP+, glucose from G3P

New cards
70

rubisco

The most abundant protein on earth. Performs Carbon Fixation in the Calvin Cycle.

New cards
71

stroma

where the calvin cycle takes place in eukaryotic photosynthesis

New cards
72

thylakoid membrane

photosystem I and II, ETC, and ATP synthase location in eukaryotic photosynthesis

New cards
73

thylakoid lumen

where protons accumulate in eukaryotic photosynthesis

New cards
74

cytoplasm

where glycolysis occurs in eukaryotic cellular respiration

New cards
75

mitochondrial matrix

where pyruvate processing and citric acid cycle occurs in eukaryotic cellular respiration

New cards
76

inner mitochondrial membrane

ATP synthase and electron transport chain in eukaryotic cellular respiration

New cards
77

Innermembrane space

where protons accumulate in eukaryotic cellular respiration

New cards
78

cellular replication result

2 identical daughter cells

New cards
79

cellular reproduction purpose

asexual reproduction, production of new cells

New cards
80

cell cycle phases

interphase (G1, S phase, G2), and mitotic (M) phase

New cards
81

when does DNA replicate

S phase

New cards
82

phases of mitosis

prophase/prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

New cards
83

interphase

after chromosome replication, each one has 2 sister chromatids

New cards
84

prophase/prometaphase

chromosomes condense, spindle apparatus forms, nuclear envelope breaks down, and microtubules connect to kinetochores

New cards
85

metaphase

chromosomes migrate to middle

New cards
86

anaphase

sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes and are pulled apart

New cards
87

telophase

nuclear envelope reforms and chromosomes decondense

New cards
88

cytokinesis

actin myosin ring causes plasma membrane to pinch inwards, cytoplasm divides, and two daughter cells form

New cards
89

only in animal cell cytokinesis

cleavage furrow, actin, and myosin

New cards
90

cell plate

microtubules direct vesicles to the center to divide the cell into two plant cells

New cards
91

binary fission step 1

DNA is copied and protein filaments attach

New cards
92

binary fission step 2

DNA copies separated, ring of proteins forms

New cards
93

binary fission step 3

ring of protein draws in membrane, then separates

New cards
94

cancer is caused by cells that

divide in an uncontrolled fashion, invade nearby tissues, and spread to other sites in the body (metastasis)

New cards
95

divide in uncontrolled fashion

mutated tumor suppressor gene which produces a defective nonfunctioning protein, leading to excessive cell division

New cards
96

p53 - tumor suppressor gene

binds to enhancers and promotes transcription of genes that arrest the cell cycle, repair DNA damage, and trigger apoptosis

New cards
97

passing G1 checkpoint

adequate cell size, sufficient nutrients, social signals present, and DNA undamaged

New cards
98

passing G2 checkpoint

chromosomes have replicated successfully, undamaged DNA, and activated MPF present

New cards
99

passing M-phase checkpoints

chromosomes have attached to spindle apparatus, chromosomes properly segregated, and MPF is present

New cards
100

M-phase promoting factor

binds to cyclin (regulatory protein)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 102 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7080 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(37)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard314 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)