Biology Chapter 2 - The Chemistry of Life

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26 Terms

1

Atom

Basic unit of matter

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2

Element

Pure substances that consist entirely of one type of atom

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3

Isotope

Atoms of the same elements that differ in the number of neutrons they contain

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4

Compound

A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements

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5

Ionic bond

When one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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6

Ions

Positively or negatively charged atoms

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7

Covalent bond

When one or more electrons are shared

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8

Cohesion

Attraction between molecules of the same substance

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9

Adhesion

Attraction between molecules of different substances

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10

Capillary Action

Ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of external forces like gravity

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11

Heat Capacity

The amount of energy needed to raise a substance's temperature by making its molecules move faster

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12

Monomers

Smaller units used to make polymers

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13

Polymers

Larger units made up of monomers

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14

Polymerization

A chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer

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15

Carbohydrate

Made up of C, H, and O Store and release energy

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16

Lipids

Mostly C and H Store energy, form biological membranes

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17

Nucleic Acids

Made of nucleotides Store and transmit genetic information

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18

Protein

Made of amino acids Repair muscle tissue, control reactions, regulate cell processes

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19

Reactants

Elements or compounds that engage in a chemical reaction

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20

Products

Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

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21

Activation energy

The energy required to start a reaction

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22

Enzymes

Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy

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23

Lock-and-key model

The active site of an enzyme is shaped to hold specific substrates

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24

Induced-fit model

The active site and substrate don't fit perfectly; instead, they both can change their shape to connect

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25

Solute

Material that gets dissolved- smaller quantities

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26

Solvent

Material that does the dissolving - larger quantities

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