Roman Architecture

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE

Rome has a commanding position in the Mediterranean sea which enabled to act as an intemediary in spreading art and civilization over Europe Western Asia and North Africa. There is marked geographical differences between Greek and the Romans with regards to national character, Romans were very close.

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CONCRETE

GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE the chief building material which renderer finest example of Roman Architecture. They also have ample supply of marbles, terracota, stone, bricks, sand, gravel & timber.

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pozzolana

Concrete was made up of stone or brick rubble & a mortar of which the important ingredient was "_______"

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CLIMATIC INFLUENCE

Rome was divided into three regions (North, Central and South Italy). Because of this variety of climatic conditions, there was a diversity of architectural features & treatment in the peninsula itself.

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RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Religion became a part of the constitution of the state. They venerated more their emperors than their gods and because of this attitude, there were less temples for worship.

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ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

a. Vastness & Magnificence, b. Ostentation & Ornateness

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PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT

Etruscan and Roman

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ETRUSCAN

notable for the use of the true & radiating arch. They were the earliest civilization & great builders, invented the "tusacan capital" and their temples were oriented at the south.

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ROMAN

adopted the columnar & trabeated style of the Greeks and developed the Arch, vault and dome of the Etruscans.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF VAULTS DEVELOPMENT BY THE ROMANS

1.) Semi-circular / wagon headed / Barrel vault

2.) Cross Vault

3.) Hemispherical Dome

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FIVE TYPES OF ROMAN CONCRETE WALLS

Opus Quadratum, Opus Incertum, Opus Recticulatum, Opus Testaceum, Opus Mixtum

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OPUS QUADRATUM

made up of rectangular blocks of stone with or without mortar joints but frequently secured with dowels and cramps.

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OPUS INCERTUM

made up of small stones laid in a loose pattern roughly assembling the polygonal work.

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OPUS RECTICULATUM

fine joints were in diagonal lines like the meshes of a net.

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OPUS TESTACEUM

triangular bricks (plan) specially made for facing the walls.

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OPUS MIXTUM

consisted of bands of "tufa" introduced at intervals in the ordinary brick facing or alteration of rectangular blocks with small squared stone blocks.

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Composite and Tuscan

TWO COLUMNS DEVELOPED BY ROMANS

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<p>COMPOSITE ORDER</p>

COMPOSITE ORDER

One of the five classical orders, popular especially since the beginning of the Renaissance but invented by the ancient Romans, in which the Corinthian order is modified by superimposing four diagonally set Ionic volutes on a bell of Corinthian acanthus leaves.

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<p>TUSCAN ORDER</p>

TUSCAN ORDER

a simplified Roman Doric characterized by an unfluted column and a plain base, capital, and entablature having no decoration other than moldings.

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TRACHELIUM

that part of the necking between the hypotrachelium and the capital of a classical column.

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HYPOTRACHELIUM

any member between the capital and the shaft of a classical column.

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DRUM

any of several cylindrical stones laid one above the other to form a column or pier.

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ROMAN BUILDING TYPES

forum, rectangular temples, circular &polygonal temples, basilicas, thermae, balneum, theaters/odeion, amphitheater, triumphal arches, town gatewats, pillars of victoryr monumental columns, palaces, roman houses, aquedects, bridges or pons, fountains

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FORUM

open space used as a meeting place, market or rendezvous for political demonstrations.

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eg FORUM OF TRAJAN

the largest Forum

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eg FORUM ROMANUM

oldest and most important forum.

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RECTANGULAR TEMPLES

used Pseudo-Peripteral Style, raised in a "podium" and oriented to the south.

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CIRCULAR & POLYGONAL TEMPLES

derived fromt the temples of the Greeks & the Etruscans which became the prototype of the Christian baptistery

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eg TEMPLE OF VESTA ROME

the most sacred shrine& source of Roman life and power.

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eg THE PANTHEON ROME

most famous & perfect preservation of all ancient buildings in Rome.

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BASILICAS

halls of justice or Assembly hall.

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eg TRAJAN'S BASILICA

built by Apollodorus of Damascus.

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eg BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE

also known as Basilica Maxentius or Basilica Nova.

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THERMAE

a palatial public bath with three main parts

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a. MAIN BUILDING

the central structure with chief apartments.

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TEPIDARIUM

warm room

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CALIDARIUM

hot room or with hot water bath

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FRIGIDARIUM

cooling room

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SUDARIUM

dry sweating room

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APODYTERIA

dressing room

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PALAESTRA

for physical exercise

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UNCTUARIA/ UNTORIA

place for oils and perfumes

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SPAERESTERIUM

game room

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b. XYSTUS OR PUBLIC PARK WITH AVENUE OF TREES

a large open space with trees, statues & fountains, part of it was used as a stadium for foot racing and where athletic sports took place

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c. OUTER RING OF APARTMENTS

LECTURE ROOMS, EXEDRAE, COLLONADE, LARGE RESERVOIR

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eg THERMAE CARACALLA

with a capacity of 1,600 bathers

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eg THERMAE OF DIOCLETIAN

largest capacity of 3000 bathers

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BALNEUM

a private bath in Roman palaces and houses

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TEPIDARIUM

warm room

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CALIDARIUM

hot room or with hot water bath

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FRIGIDARIUM

cooling room

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eg HADRIAN VILLA

summer bath

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THEATERS OR ODEION

Roman theaters were built up by means of concrete vaulting supporting tiers of seats, it was restricted to semi circle.

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ORCHESTRA

a semicircular space in the front of the stage of an ancient roman theater, reserved for senators and other distinguished spectators.

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AMPHITHEATER

used for gladiatorial combats, elliptical in plan.

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eg COLOSSEUM

also known as "FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER"

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<p>VELARIUM</p>

VELARIUM

a canvas awning drawn over an ancient Roman amphitheater to protect the audience from rain or sun.

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<p>PODIUM</p>

PODIUM

a raised platform encircling the arena of an ancient Roman amphitheater, having on it the seats of privileged spectators.

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<p>VORMITORY</p>

VORMITORY

a large opening, as in an ancient Roman amphitheater or stadium, permitting large numbers of people to enter or leave.

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<p>SUPERCOLUMNIATION</p>

SUPERCOLUMNIATION

the placing of one order of columns above another, usually with the more elaborate orders at the top.

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TRIUMPHAL ARCHES

erected to commemorate victorious campaign of emperors and generals

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TOWN GATEWAYS AND ARCHWAYS

three main types

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Three main types of gateways

a. As a protective wall & commemorative monument. b. As an ornamental portals & forum or market places c. Arch built at main street intersection which were collonated.

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PILLARS OF VICTORYOR MONUMENTAL COLUMNS

were erected to record triumphs conquered by land of victorious Generals.

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PALACES

use to house the Emperors.

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AQUEDUCTS

use for water supply with smooth channels or "specus" lined with hard cement and carried on arches, in several tiers.

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eg PALACE OF DIOCLETIAN

the largest roman palace and often called a "city in a house"covered a total of 8 acres.

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ROMAN HOUSES

Three types of a Roman House

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Three types of a Roman House

Domus, Villa/country house, Insula/ apartment block

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DOMUS

center of family apartments.

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PARTS OF DOMUS

prothyrum, atrium, tablinum, peristyle, cubicula, oecus, alae, kitchen and pantry

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PROTHYRUM

entrance passage

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ATRIUM

entrance court that is open to the sky.

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TABLINUM

open living room

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PERISTYLE

an inner collonated court with garden

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CUBICULA

bedroom

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OECUS

reception room

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ALAE

recesses for conversation

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KITCHEN & PANTRY

kitchen and pantry

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B. VILLA OR COUNTRY HOUSE

a luxurious house with surrounding terraces and gardens, colonnades, palasestae, theaters, & thermae.

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C. INSULA OR APARTMENT BLOCK

many storeyed tenement also called "Workmen's dwelling"

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AQUEDUCTS

use for water supply with smooth channels or "specus" lined with hard cement and carried on arches, in several tiers.

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BRIDGES OR "PONS"

simple, solid and practical construction designed to resist the rush of water.

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FOUNTAINS

striking features of ancient & modern Rome.

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Two Types of Roman Fountains

Lacus or Locus, Salientes

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LACUS OR LOCUS

designed similar to a large basin of water.

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SALIENTES

similar to a large basin of water with spouting jets.

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