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Who is Father Abraham/Ibrahim 2000 BCE?

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1

Who is Father Abraham/Ibrahim 2000 BCE?

Was believed to had lived in Mesopotamia (Modern Day Iraq). He is considered to be the leader/ruler of the Israelite people. He allegedly had a Dream with an entity, (Monotheism). Ibrahim was going to sacrifice his son, Ishmail but God stopped him. Ibrahim had two sons, Ishmail and Isaac.

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Who is Ishmail?

Father of Arabs

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Who is Isaac?

Father of Jews

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4

What is Solomon’s Temple (Heaven on Earth)?

A place where only priests are allowed to enter- normal people are “dirty.” Has a kingdom, which means it has a nobility. Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was a significant structure built in ancient Jerusalem by King Solomon in the 10th century BCE. According to the biblical account, the temple was constructed as a place of worship for the Israelites and as a permanent dwelling place for the Ark of the Covenant, which was a sacred object containing the tablets of the Ten Commandments.

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Who built Solomon’s Temple?

King Solomon in the 10th century BCE.

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6

Who is Jesus, Yusha or Isa?

One of the most significant figures in Christianity and Islam. In Christianity, he is known as Jesus Christ, while in Islam, he is known as Isa or Yusha. Jews believed that Jesus could save them from the Romans.

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Who is Muhammad Ali?

Was an Ottoman Albanian commander who served as the Wali (governor) of Egypt. He is credited with modernizing Egypt and creating the foundations of the modern Egyptian state. Argues that Egyptians should rule themselves, instead of the Turkish, builds an industrialized army, but doesn’t have money to do so.

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What time did Muhammad Ali rule Egypt?

1805-1848

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What is the Kaaba?

A cube-shaped structure located in the center of the Great Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is considered the most sacred site in Islam, and Muslims around the world face towards the Kaaba during their daily prayers. The Kaaba is believed to have been built by the prophet Ibrahim and his son Isma'il, and is considered to be the first house of worship dedicated to the worship of the one God in Islam. The Kaaba is covered in a black silk and gold curtain, known as the kiswah, which is replaced every year.

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What is the Dome of the Rock?

An Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. It was built in 691 CE by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik. Symbol of Jerusalem. It is believed to be the place where the prophet Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven, and the site of the First and Second Jewish Temples.

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Who is Theodor Herzl?

Said that Jews cannot say they are not Jews. Argues that the Jews should go back home. It is a good time because the Adilium Empire is fallen about (A Zionist)

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What is the Pan Arab National Socialist Ba’ath party?

A political party that was founded in 1947 in Syria by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar. The party was based on the principles of Arab nationalism, socialism, and anti-colonialism, and aimed to unify the Arab world into a single state. The party has been associated with a number of controversial political figures, including Saddam Hussein in Iraq and Hafez al-Assad in Syria. The party is known for its authoritarian and nationalist policies, and has been criticized for its human rights record and suppression of dissent.

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Who is Gamal Adel Nassel?

Was a pan-Arabist who believed in the idea of Arab nationalism, which called for the unification of all Arab countries into a single political and cultural entity.

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Who is Saddam Hussein?

Was an Iraqi politician who served as the fifth President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003, when he was overthrown by a U.S.-led coalition invasion. He rose to power through the Ba'ath Party, a socialist and nationalist political organization, and became the de facto leader of Iraq after assuming the position of Prime Minister in 1979. Hussein is known for his authoritarian rule, which was marked by human rights abuses, suppression of political opposition, and the extensive use of secret police and security forces to maintain control. Wanted to be the leader of all the Arabs, but all the Arabs didn’t want to be ruled by him.

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Who was Cyrus the great (550 B.C)?

He ruled Persepolis (Achaemenid Empire). Alexander the great conquers and takes it down. It is now absolutely destroyed. He set the Jews free from their Babylonian Captivity, which caused him to gain positive reputation from the Jews.

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Who are the 12er Shism?

A branch of Shia Islam that believes in the succession of twelve imams after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The Twelvers believe that the first imam was Ali, who was the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, and that the other eleven imams were his descendants. According to Twelver doctrine, the imams are divinely appointed leaders who have been chosen by God to guide the Muslim community, and who possess special knowledge and spiritual insight. The Twelver Shia also believe in the return of the twelfth imam, known as the Mahdi, who they believe has been in hiding since the ninth century and will one day return to bring justice and restore Islam to its rightful place. The Twelvers are the largest branch of Shia Islam, and they are predominantly found in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan.

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Who is Mohammad Mossadegh?

Was an Iranian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. He is best known for his role in the nationalization of Iran's oil industry, which had been controlled by foreign companies, particularly the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). Mossadegh's efforts to nationalize the oil industry were met with opposition from Britain and the United States, who feared that it would set a precedent for other countries to nationalize foreign-owned assets. In 1953, a coup supported by the US and Britain removed Mossadegh from power, and he was subsequently arrested and placed under house arrest for the rest of his life. Mossadegh is widely regarded as a national hero in Iran for his efforts to assert Iranian sovereignty and his opposition to foreign interference in Iranian affairs. Muhammad Mossadegh gets elected. Mossadegh nationalized all the natural materials in Iran, which is socialism.

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What is the Pahlavi Dynasty?

Was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979. It was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi, who seized power in a coup in 1921 and became the Iran’s first shah, or king, in 1925. The Pahlavi Dynasty was marked by efforts to modernize Iran and bring it into the 20th century, including reforms in education, health care, and infrastructure. The Pahlavi shahs were also closely aligned with the West, particularly the United States, and received significant military and economic aid from the West during their reigns. However, the Pahlavi Dynasty was also criticized for its authoritarianism and its suppression of political opposition, particularly under the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who came to power after his father's abdication in 1941. The Pahlavi Dynasty was overthrown in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which led to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

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Who is Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?

An Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader and politician who played a leading role in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty and established the Islamic Republic of Iran. He became known for his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty and his advocacy of Islamic governance, and he was arrested and exiled several times during his career. However, his popularity grew during the 1970s, particularly following his condemnation of the shah's regime and his call for an Islamic revolution in Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini returned to Iran and became the country's Supreme Leader, a position he held until his death in 1989. Khomeini is widely regarded as a key figure in the establishment of the Islamic Republic and the development of the concept of "Islamic governance," which emphasizes the role of Islamic law and religious leaders in the governance of society.

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Who is Mahmoud Ahmadinejad?

An Iranian politician who served as the sixth President of the Islamic Republic of Iran from 2005 to 2013. Ahmadinejad was born in 1956 in the city of Aradan, Iran, and studied civil engineering at the Iran University of Science and Technology before becoming involved in politics. He was a member of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, and later served as mayor of Tehran from 2003 to 2005. Ahmadinejad's presidency was marked by controversy, both within Iran and internationally. He was known for his conservative policies and his emphasis on populist rhetoric, as well as his confrontational approach to foreign relations, particularly with the United States and Israel. His presidency was also marked by economic challenges, including high inflation and unemployment, which led to protests and criticism from within Iran. Ahmadinejad left office in 2013, and has remained involved in Iranian politics as a critic of the current government.

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Who is Ayatollah Ali Khamenei?

The current Supreme Leader of Iran, a position he has held since 1989. Khamenei was born in 1939 in the city of Mashhad, Iran, and was educated in Islamic scholarship in Iran and Iraq. He became politically active during the 1960s and 1970s, opposing the Pahlavi dynasty and supporting the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Following the revolution, Khamenei served in various government positions before being appointed as Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts in 1989, following the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. As Supreme Leader, Khamenei holds significant power over Iran's government and society, including the ability to appoint the heads of key government agencies and the military. He is also responsible for setting Iran's foreign policy and has been a vocal critic of the United States and Israel. Khamenei is widely regarded as a conservative religious leader who advocates for the principles of the Islamic Revolution and promotes the idea of "Islamic democracy."

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Who is Mashid Alinjad?

An Iranian-American journalist, author, and women's rights activist. Alinejad has been critical of the Islamic Republic of Iran's laws making it illegal for women not to wear a hijab outside the home

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23

Cedar of Lebanon

A group of ancient cedar trees that are native to the mountains of Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey. These trees are known for their longevity and have been revered for thousands of years in the region as a symbol of strength and resilience. The cedars have also played an important role in the history of the region, as they were prized by ancient civilizations for their wood, which was used for shipbuilding, construction, and religious purposes. Cedar wood is desirable because pretty and hard

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24

What was the Lebanese Civil War?

150,000 Killed. Every family because its a small country. The sides who fought:

  • The Lebanese government and its army, which was supported by the United States and other Western countries.

  • The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a group that had been based in Lebanon since the 1970s and was fighting for the establishment of a Palestinian state.

  • Various Christian militias, including the Lebanese Forces and the Phalange party.

  • Various Muslim militias, including the Amal Movement and Hezbollah.

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When was the Lebanese Civil War?

1975-1990

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What is Hezbollah?

An Iran-backed Lebanese Shi'a militia and U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization. Israelis died in the Beaufort with the weapons we gave Hezbollah. Hezbollah is in control of half of Lebanon. Hezbollah are not happy that Saadat made peace with the Jews , which causes War in Lebanon 1982: fight against Hezbollah.

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What is Islamic Jihad?

Also known as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), is a militant organization that operates in the Palestinian territories and Israel. The group was founded in the late 1970s as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood and is dedicated to the establishment of an Islamic state in historic Palestine, which includes the territory of Israel. Islamic Jihad is considered a terrorist organization by many countries, including the United States, Israel, and the European Union, due to its use of violence and its targeting of civilians. The group has been responsible for a number of suicide bombings, rocket attacks, and other acts of terrorism against Israeli targets. However, the group also operates social programs and provides humanitarian aid to Palestinians in the territories it controls, particularly in the Gaza Strip.

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What was the Cedar Revolution 2005?

A series of protests and demonstrations that took place in Lebanon in early 2005, following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. The movement was named after the Cedar tree, which is a national symbol of Lebanon. The protesters, who were primarily made up of Lebanese Christians, Sunnis, and Druze, demanded the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the establishment of an independent, democratic government. The protests were largely peaceful, with participants waving Lebanese flags and calling for the removal of the Syrian-backed government. (The Lebanons want the Syrians out)

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Who was Rafik Hariri?

Was assassinated in car bombing in 2005, which led to the Cedar Revolution Protests.

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Beirut Explosion

Happened in 2020, when ignition of stored fireworks happened right next to a large stockpile of ammonium nitrate. The blast caused widespread damage throughout the city, killing over 200 people and injuring thousands more.

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31

Free Syrian Army (FSA)

A Syrian armed opposition group that was formed during the early stages of the Syrian civil war, which began in 2011. The FSA was composed of defected Syrian Armed Forces personnel and volunteers, and its stated goal was to overthrow the government of President Bashar al-Assad and establish a democratic state in Syria. The FSA received support from various foreign governments and organizations, including Turkey, the United States, and Gulf Arab states.

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Who was Hafez Al Assad?

Was a Syrian politician and military commander who served as the President of Syria from 1971 until his death in 2000

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Who was Bashar Al Assad?

Current President of Syria ‘The Hope,’ 2000-Present : Son of Hafez al-Assad

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34

What are the Kurdish Militias?

Armed groups composed mainly of Kurdish fighters who operate in various regions of the Middle East, including Syria, Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The Kurdish people are an ethnic group with their own distinct language and culture, and they have long sought greater autonomy and independence in the regions they inhabit.

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35

What was the Lebanese Southern Army (SLA)?

Was a Lebanese militia that was active during the Lebanese Civil War and the Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon. The SLA was primarily composed of Lebanese Christians and allied with Israel, which provided the group with military support and financial aid.

The SLA was formed in 1976, with the aim of countering Palestinian and Lebanese Muslim militias operating in southern Lebanon. The group was instrumental in helping Israel establish a security zone in southern Lebanon and fought alongside Israeli forces during the Israeli occupation of the region.

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36

What is Al Qaeda?

A militant Sunni Islamist organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden and other Islamic extremists. The group is known for its use of terrorist tactics, including suicide bombings, kidnappings, and other attacks targeting civilians, military personnel, and government officials. The group is responsible for the 9/11 attacks.

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37

What was the balfour Declaration?

A statement issued by the British government in 1917 during World War I, which declared its support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. The declaration was named after Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary who authored the statement.

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38

What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement?

The agreement established a plan for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and the post-war division of its territories in the Middle East. The agreement proposed that the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire would be divided into zones of influence, with France taking control of the northern part of Syria, Lebanon, and southeastern Turkey, while Britain would control the area including Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. The agreement also proposed an international administration for the region of Jerusalem. (

In secret, the English and French are splitting the middle eat for themselves, and are not actually going to give it to the Jews or Arabs)

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39

What was the Mandate System?

A system of governance established by the League of Nations after World War I, which assigned responsibility for administering former Ottoman territories in the Middle East to various European powers.

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40

Palestinian Conference in London 1939

Also known as the St. James Conference, was a conference held in February 1939, organized by the British government to address the ongoing conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. (when the war is over, Arabs will get Palestine, appeasement)

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41

What was Irgun and Stern Gang?

Were two militant Zionist groups that operated in Palestine during the British Mandate period.

  • terrorist organizations, which terrorized the British because they’re in charge

  • The British didn’t want to deal with the organizations, so they left

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42

What was the U.N. Partition 1947?

A proposal put forth by the United Nations in November 1947, which called for the partition of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states. Plan was rejected by the Arab League and Palestinian Arab leaders, who argued that it violated the principle of self-determination and would lead to the displacement of Arab residents in the region.

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43

Who was Yassir Arafat?

Was a Palestinian leader and the founder of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Arafat was known for his advocacy of armed resistance against Israel.

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44

Who was Menachem Begin?

Was an Israeli politician and the founder of the Likud Party. Was a leader of the Irgun Gang.

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45

What was the Six Day War 1967?

The war was fought between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The war was the result of escalating tensions between Israel and its Arab neighbors, fueled by territorial disputes, political and economic instability, and military buildups on both sides.

(The arabs tanks are blown up, because they were hidden in the desert, same with the planes) (

Greater Israel: Israelis get more land after winning the Six day war Palestinians are still living in the areas the the Israelis received, but they are made into Israeli citizens, because they can’t cause a holocaust

Palestinians reproduce more children, so they were given less rights so they don’t over populate)

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46

West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip

All territories in the Middle East that have been at the center of conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.

  • The West Bank is a landlocked territory located on the west bank of the Jordan River, and is home to approximately 2.8 million Palestinians and around 600,000 Israeli settlers.

  • The Golan Heights is a region located in southwestern Syria, which was captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in 1967.

  • The Gaza Strip is a narrow strip of land located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to approximately 2 million Palestinians. Israel captured the territory from Egypt during the Six-Day War in 1967, but withdrew its military forces and settlements from the area in 2005.

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47

What is the Green Line?

A demarcation line that separates Israel and the territories it occupied during the 1967 Six-Day War, including the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights. The line is so named because it was drawn in green ink on a map by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) during the war.

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48

What is the Camp David Accord 1978?

A historic peace agreement signed by the leaders of Israel and Egypt in 1978, following 13 days of intensive negotiations at the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland, USA. The Accords were brokered by US President Jimmy Carter and were aimed at resolving the long-standing conflict between Israel and Egypt.

  • The Accords consisted of two main agreements: the first was a framework agreement that established the principles for a comprehensive peace settlement between Israel and all of its Arab neighbors, and the second was a bilateral agreement between Israel and Egypt that provided for the full normalization of relations between the two countries.

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49

What was The Intifada 1987?

Also known as the Palestinian Uprising, was a largely nonviolent movement that began in December 1987 in response to Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The uprising was characterized by widespread civil disobedience, including protests, strikes, and boycotts, as well as acts of violence by Palestinian militants. The First Intifada lasted until 1993, when negotiations between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) led to the signing of the Oslo Accords.(Palestinian kids rose up)

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What was the Oslo Accords 1993?

A series of agreements signed in the early 1990s between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) that aimed to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and pave the way for a peaceful and lasting settlement in the region.

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51

Who was Yitzak Rabin?

Was an Israeli statesman and military leader who served as the Prime Minister of Israel twice, first from 1974 to 1977 and then again from 1992 until his assassination by a Jewish extremist who opposed his peace efforts in 1995.

  • he signed the Oslo Accords with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat

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52

What is Hamas?

"Islamic Resistance Movement." A terrorists group. Hamas's stated goal is to liberate Palestine from Israeli occupation and establish an Islamic state in the area that includes Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.

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53

What is the PA (Palestinian Authority)?

The governing body of the Palestinian territories in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It was established in 1994 as part of the Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and is recognized by the international community as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

  • The PA has limited governing authority, as Israel retains overall control of the West Bank and maintains a blockade on the Gaza Strip. The PA is responsible for maintaining civil order and providing basic services, such as healthcare and education, to the Palestinian population.

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54

What are the 1 State Solution/2 State Solutions?

The one-state solution and the two-state solution are two proposed solutions to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

  • The one-state solution proposes the creation of a single, secular, democratic state in the area that currently includes Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip

  • The two-state solution proposes the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside Israel, with the two states living side by side in peace and security.

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55

Who was Zine El Abidine Ben Ali?

Was the President of Tunisia from 1987 until 2011. He came to power in a bloodless coup in 1987, overthrowing the country's first president, Habib Bourguiba.

  • During his 23-year tenure, Ben Ali maintained a strong grip on power, suppressing political opposition and limiting freedom of speech and the press. He also focused on economic development, modernizing Tunisia's infrastructure and attracting foreign investment.

  • However, his regime was marked by allegations of corruption and human rights abuses, and many Tunisians felt disenfranchised and economically marginalized. In December 2010, protests broke out in several Tunisian cities, sparked by the self-immolation of a street vendor who had been harassed by police.

The protests quickly spread and became known as the Tunisian Revolution. In January 2011, Ben Ali fled the country and was eventually granted asylum in Saudi Arabia.

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56

Who was Mohamed Bouazizi, Arab Spring?

Was a Tunisian street vendor who became the catalyst for the Arab Spring protests in Tunisia and beyond. On December 17, 2010, Bouazizi set himself on fire in front of the local government office in the town of Sidi Bouzid, in protest against the confiscation of his goods by the police.

  • Bouazizi's act of self-immolation sparked protests in Sidi Bouzid, which quickly spread to other cities and towns in Tunisia. The protests were fueled by anger over corruption, unemployment, and political repression under the regime of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

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57

Who was Hosni Mubarak?

Was the President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. He came to power after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat, and was re-elected to office several times over the next three decades.

  • During his time in power, Mubarak maintained a strong grip on the country's politics and economy, relying on a system of repression and corruption to remain in power. His regime was marked by allegations of human rights abuses, including torture and extra-judicial killings, as well as restrictions on freedom of speech and the press.

  • In January 2011, popular protests broke out in Egypt, inspired by the successful revolution in Tunisia. The protests quickly grew in size and intensity, with millions of Egyptians taking to the streets to demand an end to Mubarak's regime.

Mubarak was later put on trial on charges of corruption and complicity in the killing of protesters during the revolution. In 2012, he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison, but the verdict was later overturned on appeal. Mubarak was eventually released from prison in 2017, and died in 2020 at the age of 91.

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58

Al Qaeda, ISIS, Daesh

Al Qaeda, ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), and Daesh (an Arabic acronym for ISIS) are all Sunni jihadist militant groups that have gained international notoriety for their use of violence and terrorism to achieve their goals.

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59

A series of written laws written by man are called a…

constitution

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60

A series of written laws written by god is called a ….

Code/Commandment

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61

What are the ten commandments?

A set of biblical principles and laws that are fundamental to both Judaism and Christianity. They were given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai and are recorded in the Hebrew Bible in the book of Exodus and in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.

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62

Yeshua Bar Yosef Of Nazareth

  • The kid started to teach, who was a rabbi

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