Chemistry Ch. 14 Study Guide - Mixtures and Solutions

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Chemistry

36 Terms

1

solution

a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances

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2

solute

what’s dissolved in the solvent

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3

solvent

most abundant substance

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4

soluble

substance that dissolves in another substance

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5

insoluble

substance that does not dissolve into another substance

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6

miscible

if substances are 2 liquids

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7

immiscible

if substances are not 2 liquids

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8

solvation

process of solvent particles surrounding solute particles

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9

hydration

solvation of water

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10

heat of solution

the overall energy change during the formation of a solution

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11

solubility

maximum amount of a solute that dissolves in a solvent at a given temperature and pressure

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12

saturated solution

contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure

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13

unsaturated solution

dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure is less than a saturated one

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14

supersaturated solution

contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature and pressure

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15

Henry’s Law

S1/P1 = S2/P2 (used for gases dissolved in liquids)

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16

concentration

how much solute is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent or solution

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17

concentrated

another term for concentration

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18

dilute

another term for concentration

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19

percent by mass

mass of solute/mass of solution x 100

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20

percent by volume

volume of solute/volume of solution x 100

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21

molarity

moles of solute/liters of solution

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22

molality

moles of solute/kg of solvent

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23

mole fraction

X(A) = n(A)/n(A) + n(B)

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24

colligative properties

the physical properties of solutions that are affected by the number of particles but not the identity of the dissolved solute particles

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25

volatile/volatility

the tendency of a substance to evaporate at room temperature

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26

boiling point elevation

the difference between the pure solvent’s boiling point and the solution’s boiling point

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27

freezing point depression

the difference in temperature between the freezing point of pure solvent and the solution’s freezing point

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28

osmosis

the diffusion of solvent particles across a semi-permeable from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

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29

osmotic pressure

the pressure created by the additional water particles moving onto the solution side

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30

semipermeable

means that the membrane has tiny holes that allow some, but not all kinds of particles to cross

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31

suspension

a mixture containing large particles that settle out if left undistributed

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32

colloid

contains intermediate size particles in a mixture that don’t settle out if left undisturbed

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33

Brownian motion

the erratic movement of colloid particles that results from particle collisions between the dispersed particles and the dispersing medium

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34

Tyndall effect

the scattering of light caused by dispersing colloid particles

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35

stock solution

M1V1 = M2V2

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36
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