Biology- animalia chapter 9

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vitamins and minerals needed by the body in very small amounts


, fat, protein and carbohydrate needed by the body in large amounts


the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms that are necessary to maintain life.


the metabolic reactions that breakdown larger molecules into smaller subunits


the metabolic reactions that use energy to produce larger molecules from smaller subunits

metabolic rate

the rate at which the body converts stored energy into working energy


adenosine triphosphate: a substance found in all living tissue that is made up of an adenosine molecule linked to three phosphate groups. Energy for physiological functions like muscle contraction is provided by the breakdown of one phosphate bond (to generate adenosine diphosphate, ADP).


1 calorie= 1000 calories of 4180J 2.2 lbs=1 kg 1 ft= 12 in 1in = 25 cm


are very large molecules that are made up of smaller molecules that are linked together.

How is the metabolic rate affected?

Body size: the larger the body the more energy is required to stay alive. Physical activity: Muscle burns more energy than fat, so physical activity requires more energy. Sex: males are typically larger in size and have a greater proportion in muscle mass than females age: decreases within age (lack of physical activity and the loss of muscle mass) Hereditary factors: some individuals have a naturally high metabolic rate. In these individuals, the chemical energy obtained from food is very quickly converted into other forms of energy.


a chemical that must be obtained by an organism from its environment in order to survive; nutrients provide the raw material for growth and repair and may be a source of energy


a chemical signal or messenger molecule, circulated through the body and used to coordinate cellular functions.


  • the main source of energy for the human body -made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen -provide materials to build cell membrane provide energy for use by cells (short term-glucose) (long term-glycogen) Examples: Glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, starch,glycogen, cellulose (regulate stool, helps body store water).

the six essential nutrients in order to stay healthy

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, vitamins, and minerals


  • consists of a single sugar molecule

  • most basic -ring-shaped structures examples: glucose and fructose (found in fruit)


  • made up of two simple sugars Example: (sucrose, maltose)


  • many simple sugar molecules can join together to form large carbohydrates.


  • store energy reserves for later use by cells

  • cushion and insulates the internal organs examples: fats, oil, wax

  • store 2 times more energy per gram than other biological molecules


  • provide structure and support for blood cells, body tissues, and muscles

  • Aid in muscle movements such as contraction -Acts as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions in the cells

  • Provide immunity against infection and disease

  • Transports ions in cell membranes examples: Insulin, hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes -made up of hundreds of amino acids that are joined by peptide bonds

Nucleic acids

  • contains the organism's, genetic information

  • Direct the growth of the organism Examples: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • composed of repeated subunits of sugar, phosphate, and nucleobase.


an organic molecule that the body requires in small amounts as a essential nutrient


an element, such as calcium or phosphorus, required by the body in small amounts; plays a role in cell processes and repair

Monomer (unit)

a simple molecule with two or more binding sites

polymer (unit)

are composed of large numbers of linked , small repeat units


a lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids that are bonded together

why do we need water

  • made up of 55-60 percent of water

  • converts nutrients

  • keeps nasal cavity moist

  • helps remove waste (cellular respiration) -helps repair -helps deliver -helps joints -helps nerve cells -regulation absorber (shock absorber)

Fat soluble

  • vitamins A,D,E and K - stored in the body's healthy tissues for future use

  • not easy to eliminate if needed

  • vit K is synthesized by special bacteria found in the large intestine -vit D is formed in the sun when the skin is exposed to sunlight

Water soluble

vitamins B and C cannot be stored in the body and excess quantities are eliminated in urine.

gastrovascular cavity

a simple, sac-like digestive cavity that has only one opening through which food is taken in and wastes are expelled


breaking down or loosing muscle mass

gastrointestinal tract

the passageway or tube that extends from the mouth to the anus and in which the process of digestion takes place.


the chemical reaction in which water breaks apart macronutrients (lysis) into smaller molecules


building and maintaining muscle mass

dehydration synthesis

the creation of larger molecules from smaller monomers where a water mole cule is released.


any chemical produced by cells that facilitates biochemical reactions in the body, such as those involved in digestion and metabolism; all enzymes are proteins.


an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates


it is a protective secretion that lubricates and aids in the swallowing of bolus.


infectious microbes that cause sickness and diease

Four stages of digestion

  1. Ingestion - taking of nutrients

  2. Digestion - breaking down of complex molecules into smaller components by enzymes and by chewing

  3. Absorption - transport of digested nutrients into the circulatory system and to the tissues of the body

  4. Egestion - removal of waster food materials from the body


  • are enzymes

  • speeds up processes


  • contains enzymes that help increase the rate of chemical reactions

  • mucus is found in saliva, it is a protective secretion that lubricates and aids in swallowing of bolus (ball of food)

The breaking of chemical bonds

involves an enzyme ( a biological catalyst that increases the rate of reactions but is not "used up" in the reaction). the substance that an enzyme combines with is very specific. the enzyme amylase will only work on breaking starches (polysaccharides) down into disaccharides.

Digestive enzymes

starch is broken down by carbohydrase into simple sugars Proteins are broken down by protease into amino acids Lipids are broken down by lipase into Glycerol and fatty acids

acidic pH

the enzyme pepsin in the stomach

Neutral pH

the enzyme amylase in saliva

Basic pH

the enzyme trypsin in the small intestine


macromolecule - carbohydrate product breakdown - a simple sugar

  • produced in the salivary glands & functions in the mouth


macromolecule - lipid product of breakdown- glycerol and fatty acids produced in the pancreas and functions in the small intestine with the help of bile which was produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder


macromolecule - protein product of breakdown - amino acid produced by the stomach glands and functions in the stomach