SOLVING PROBLEMS: CONTROLLING EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES

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Emily’s Memory Experiment

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30 Terms

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Emily’s Memory Experiment

  • Emily faced challenges in her memory experiment due to changing testing conditions.

  • The reading room closure led her to test subjects in the building's lobby, introducing potential confounds.

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2

Physical Variables

Aspects of testing conditions requiring control.

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3

Elimination

Technique to control extraneous variables by removing them from the experiment.

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Constancy of Conditions

Procedure to avoid confounding by keeping treatment conditions identical, except for the manipulated independent variable.

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Balancing

Technique to distribute the effects of extraneous variables equally across treatment conditions.

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possible

Eliminate extraneous variables when…

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7

possible

Keep treatment conditions as similar as…

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8

treatment conditions.

Balance effects of variables evenly across…

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9

treatment conditions.

Randomly assign individual subjects to…

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10

experimental design.

Prioritize internal validity over external validity in…

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11

internal validity.

External validity relies on first ensuring…

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12

Social Variables:

Qualities of relationships between subjects and experimenters influencing experiment results.

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13

Demand Characteristics:

  • Aspects of the experimental situation eliciting specific behaviors.

  • Cues influencing a subject’s response inadvertently.

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14

Single-Blind Experiments

Subjects unaware of their treatment conditions to control demand characteristics.

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15

Placebo Effect

Improvement in condition from inert treatment due to expectations or increased motivation.

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16

Cover Story

False explanation of procedures to disguise the actual hypothesis.

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17

Experimenter Bias

Any experimenter behavior creating confounding.

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18

Double-Blind Experiment

Neither experimenter nor subjects know treatment conditions, controlling experimenter bias.

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19

Personality Variables

Personal characteristics brought by an experimenter or volunteer subject to the experimental setting.

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20

external validity.

Titles may bias samples, reducing…

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21

generalizability.

Non-random subject selection leads to biased samples and less…

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the experiment.

Be aware of practice and fatigue effects during…

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