Intro to Human Phys - Ch 3: Cells and Tissues

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Nutrition

133 Terms

1

cells

basic structural and functional unit of living and organisms

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plasma membrane

barrier for cell contents (made of phospholipids with proteins to let things through)

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tight junctions

zipper-like fusion that creates leakproof sheets

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desmosome (anchoring) junction

“rivets” that anchor cells together and prevent cells from being pulled apart my mechanical stress

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gap (communicating) junction

hollow cylinders of proteins form pores that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell

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6

nucleus

control center of the cell (contains genetic material aka DNA)

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nuclear envelope (membrane)

a double membrane with nuclear pores and contains the nucleoplasm

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nucleolus (-i)

one or more per nucleus, ribosomes assembly

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chromatin

composed of DNA wound around histones, scattered throughout the nucleus when cell is not dividing. condenses and form chromosomes when cell divides

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10

cytoplasm

contains cytosol (fluid that suspends other elements), organelles, and inclusions

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11

ribosomes

site of protein synthesis and is made of protein and rRNA

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12

endoplasmic reticulum

fluid tunnels that carry substances

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13

rough ER

has ribosomes, manufactures all secreted proteins, creates membrane proteins and phospholipids.

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smooth ER

lacks ribosomes and contains enzymes that function in liver, synthesis of steroid-based hormones, intestinal cells, and in skeletal and cardiac muscle which store and release calcium.

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15

golgi apparatus

stack of flattened membranes that modifies, concentrates, and packages proteins and lipids (like UPS of cell)

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16

lysosomes

membranous bags that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) which digest ingested bacteria, viruses and toxins. degrade nonfunctional organelles, and destroy cells in injured or nonuseful tissue (autolysis)

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peroxisomes

membranous sacs of oxidase and catalase enzymes (detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde)

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18

cytoskeleton

provides the cell with an internal framework that determines cell shape, supports organelles, and directs intracellular transport. three types: microfilaments (smallest), intermediate filaments, microtubules (largest)

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19

centrioles

generate microtubules and direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division

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20

cilia surface extensions

little hairs that move materials across the cell surface (ex: on respiratory tract to move mucus)

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21

flagella surface extension

tail that propels the cell (sperm is the only one with this extension)

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22

microvilli surface extension

tiny finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane (increase surface area for absorption)

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23

fibroblasts (connects body parts)

secretes cable-like fibers

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24

erythrocyte (RBS) (connects body parts)

carries oxygen in the bloodstream

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25

epithelial cells

cell that cover and line body organs

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26

skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells

cells that move organs and body parts

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27

fat cells (adipocytes)

lipid droplets stores in cytoplasm, cell that stores nutrients

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28

white blood cells

digest infectious microorganisms and fights disease

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29

nerve cell (neuron)

receives and transmits messages to other body structures, gathers info and controls body functions

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30

solutions

homogeneous mixture of two or more components

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31

solvent

dissolves medium; present in the larger quality (H2O in the human body)

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32

solutes

compounds in smaller quantities within a solution

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33

intracellular fluid

nucleoplasm and cytosol

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34

extracellular fluid

fluid outside of cell, mainly as interstitial fluid

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35

membrane transport

movement into and out of cell

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36

concentration gradient

measure of the difference of a solute between two points of a solution

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37

movement down or with the concentration gradient

solute is moving from a higher to a lower concentration of solutes

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movement up or against concentration gradient

solute is moving from a lower to a higher concentration and requires energy

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39

passive process of membrane transport

substances are transported across the membrane without any input from cell

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40

active process of membrane transport

the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) to drive the transport process

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41

simple diffusion

unassisted movement of solutes

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42

facilitated diffusion

transports lilid-insoluble substances, charged substances, and substances too large for passage through membrane pores. (uses membrane channels or protein molecules that act as carriers)

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43

osmosis

simple diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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44

tonicity

the ability of a solution to cause a cell to shrink or swell

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isotonic solutions

equal amount of solute and water concentrations on both sides of membrane; cells gain and lose water at same rate

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hypertonic solutions

water is drawn out of the cell because the solution contains more solutes

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hypotonic solution

water is drawn into the cell because the cell contains more solutes

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48

filtration

water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid pressure (like how a french press works)

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49

simple diffusion passive transport

small lipid-soluble

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50

carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion

lipid-insoluble

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channel-mediated facilitated diffusion

ions and other molecules

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52

active process membrane transport

ATP is used to move substances across a membrane

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53

exocytosis vesicular transport

material is carried in a membranous sac called a vesicle that migrates to and combines with the plasma membrane, contents are emptied outside

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54

endocytosis vesicular transport

extracellular substances are engulfed in a membranous vesicle, vesicle detaches from the plasma membrane and moves into the cell, once in cell will fuse with a lysosome

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55

phagocytosis

cell engulfs large particles such as bacteria or dead body cells, protective mechanism

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pinocytosis

cell “gulps” droplets of extracellular fluid containing dissolved proteins or fats

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cell life cycle

series of changes a cell will experience from the time it is formed until it divides

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interphase

cell grows and carries on metabolic processes

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cell division

cell reproduces itself

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60

DNA replication

A bonds to T and G bonds to C

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mitosis

division of nucleus

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cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm

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63

prophase

nuclear envelope and nucleoli brake down and chromatin coils into chromosomes

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metaphase

chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plate

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anaphase

centromere splits and chromatids move slowly apart towards opposite ends of the cell

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telophase

chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin, nuclear envalope re-forms around chromatin

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gene

DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein

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68

RNA

contains U instead of T and is single stranded

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rRNA

helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built

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70

mRNA

carries the instructions for building a protein

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tRNA

escorts appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protien

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72

transcription of protein synthesis

transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complementary base sequence of mRNA

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73

codon

three-base sequences on mRNA

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74

triplets

three-base sequence of DNA

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75

anticodon

three-base sequence of tRNA

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76

epithelial tissue

cells that fit closely together to form sheets that cover and line surfaces of the body

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77

simple epithelial

single layer

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78

stratified epithelial

more than one layer of cells (function primarily in protection)

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79

squamous cell

flattened cell (similar to fish scales)

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80

cuboidal cell

cube-shaped cells

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81

columnar cell

column shaped cell

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82

pseudosstratified columnar simple epithelial cell

cells are different sizes but there is still only one layer of cells

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83

transitional stratified epithelial cell

cells are able to change shape (stretch)

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84

simple squamous epithelium

usually forms membranes that line air sacs, walls of capillaries, and serous membranes that line organs in ventral cavity.

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85

simple cuboidal epithelium

common in glands and their ducts, forms walls of kidney tubules, and covers surface of ovaries

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86

simple columnar epithelium

line the digestive tract from stomach to anus

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87

mucous membranes

line body cavities that are open to the exterior

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pseudostratified columnar epithelium

located in the respiratory tract, functions in absorption or secretion

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89

stratified squamous epithelium

protective covering where friction is common, lining of the skin, mouth, and esophagus

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90

stratified cuboidal epithelium and stratified columnar epithelium

rare in the body, found mainly in ducts of large glands

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91

stratified transitional epithelium

functions in stretching and the ability to return to normal shape (founds in the lining of urinary bladder)

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92

gland

one or more cells responsible for secreting a substance onto a surface, into a cavity, or into blood.

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93

endocrine gland

ductless; secretions (hormones) diffuse into blood vessels (thyroid, adrenals, and pituitary)

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exocrine glands

secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface (sweat and oil glands, liver, and pancreas)

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95

connective tissue

functions: protection, supporting, cushioning, insulating

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96

extracellular matrix

nonliving material that surrounds living cells

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97

ground substance

mostly water, along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules

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98

collagen (white) fibers

fibers that are tough and bendable

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99

elastic (yellow) fibers

fibers that stretch

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100

reticular fibers

fibers that form a mesh

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